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Flashcards in Final Review Deck (69)
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1

Deep Veins

- Carry majority of leg blood volume
- run alongside major arteries of the same name
- become paired in calf

2

Superficial Veins

- smaller in diameter
- close to skin surface
- have no accompanying arteries

3

Perforating Veins

- allow communication between deep and superficial veins
- normal flow: superficial to deep
- pass through the deep fascial plane
- have valves to prevent flow from moving deep to superficial
- not typically seen

4

Calf Muscle Veins

- considered part of the deep system
- drain blood from gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in calf

5

IVC : inferior vena cava

connects common iliac veins to right arm

6

CIV: common iliac vein

formed by union of internal and external iliac veins

7

EIV : external iliac vein

extends to the inguinal ligament

8

IIV: internal iliac vein

drains blood from pelvis, aka hypogastric vein

9

CFV : common femoral vein

extends from inguinal ligament to bifurcation

10

GSV: greater saphenous vein

arises from medial aspect of CFV at saphenofemoral junction (SFJ)
aka long saphenous vein
runs medial leg groin to foot
~30% duplicated or non continuous

11

Femoral Vein (FV P, M, D)

begins at bifurcation passes through adductor canal at distal
aka superficial femoral vein

12

PFV: deep femoral vein

joins femoral vein to form CFV
drains thigh and lower pelvis
aka profundal vein or profundal femoris vein

13

POP V: popliteal vein

runs behind knee
connects anterior tibial vein/tibioperoneal trunk to femoral vein

14

SSV: small saphenous vein

arises from popliteal
passes inferiorly along calf
aka short saphenous vein or lesser saphenous vein
- runs posterior calf
- 20-30% of people will enter above the POP V

15

Gastrocnemius Veins

Drains gastrocnemius muscle
empties into popliteal vein
paired veins

16

Soleal Veins

drain soleus muscle
empty into PTVs and peroneal veins

17

AVTs : anterior tibial veins

drain anterior calf and foot
paired veins

18

PER Vs: peroneal veins

drain medial and posterior calf
paired veins

19

Bifid Femoral Vein

- may occur in prox, mid, or distal FV
- may continue through POP V or may rejoin dominant vein
- duplication noted in ~30% of population

20

Venous Hemodynamics

- veins are highly compliant (expand/collapse)
- shape varies with changes in transmural pressure
- high pressure: round
- low pressure: "dumbbell" shape
- being able to expand allows veins to hold more blood without affecting the pressure gradient

21

Capillary Pressure Gradient

- flow across capillary bed governed by pressure gradient
- higher pressure in arterioles due to cardiac contraction
- lower pressure in venules due to compliant nature

22

Distal Venous Pressures
- standing ?
- lying?
- walking?

- standing : 80 mmHg
- lying : 10 mmHg
- walking : 25 mmHg

23

Hydrostatic Pressure Effect

- increased transmural venous pressure distally
- increased venous distention
- increased venous pooling
- decreased in capillary perfusion
- decreased in venous return
- decreased in cardiac output

24

Inspiration

- diaphragm moves downward
- intraabdominal pressure increase
- IVC is compressed
- venous outflow is temporarily reduced or stopper

25

Exhalation

- intraabdominal pressure decreases
- flow resumes

26

Flow Patterns in LE Veins

- normally phasic and spontaneous ( NOT pulsatile)
- cardiac influence is usually not apparent or is reduced in LEV
- increased resistance due to congestive heart failure causes pulsatility

27

Impediments to LEV flow

- hydrostatic pressure
- flowing against gravity
- increased transmural pressure
- dissipation of cardiac contraction across capillary bed

28

How do we get blood back to the heart?

three pumps in the leg:
- foot pump: primes the calf pump
- calf veno motor pump: major ejection
- thigh pump: ejects thigh blood volume

29

Venous Valve Distribution

IVC 0
CIV 0
EIV 0
FV: 4
GSV: 12
POP V: 2
PTV: 10
PER: 10
ATV: 10

30

What is the calf veno-motor pump is made of what?

veins in calf
skeletal muscles
semilunar valves