What is the RDA for carbohydrates (in grams)?
How much fiber should men be consuming daily? Women?
What is the % energy intake that should be coming from each macronutrient?
T/F: Carbohydrates are broken down into simple carbs, which taste sweet, and complex carbs, which don’t taste sweet.
What are the 2 subcategories of simple carbs?
Monosaccharides & Disaccharides
Which fiber type swells in water, increasing satiety: soluble or insoluble?
T/F: Cellulose, lignin, and pectins are all insoluble fiber types.
Kinda True…just take note that pectins can fall into insoluble or soluble depending on what it is.
T/F: Beta-glucans & pectin are both viscous and fermentable fiber.
True (viscous=good binders, fermentable=metabolized by colon bacteria–>gas)
The peels of fruits and vegetables are ___ fiber whereas the insides of fruits and vegetables are ___ fiber.
Which type of soluble fiber is excreted unchanged: soluble or insoluble?
What is the kcal/gram value of carbs?
To be considered whole grain, it must have what 3 things?
What is the normal fasting blood glucose level?
Anything above ___ mg/dL is considered diabetic blood glucose levels.
What is considered as hypoglycemic blood glucose value?
Less than 70 mg/dL
T/F: Insulin is released from the beta cells of the pancreas in response to raised blood glucose.
Insulin stimulates ___, which helps shuttle glucose from blood to muscle and adipose cells.
When glucose is present, insulin tells cells to do what 3 things with the glucose?
- Use it for ATP
- Store excess as glycogen in liver and musc
- Turn it into adipose
___ is released from the alpha cells of the pancreas.
Insulin-dependent diabetes is also be called_______ and is autoimmune in nature.
Type 1 Diabetes
Which type of diabetes has a GLUT4 issue?
Type 2 Diabetes (Insulin-independent)
What affects blood glucose & increases TG?
Sugars & Starch (note: fiber will not incr blood glucose)
What is the storage form of carbs in mammals?
Which can store more glycogen: liver or muscle?
Muscle, even more so if the indiv is trained and not sedentary. (Musc 1400 kcal vs liver 400 kcal)
During high intensity exercise, are we using more fat or carbs?
Carbs (much more efficient, requires less oxygen to burn than lipids do)
T/F: Insulin & GLUT4 levels decrease during exercise.
False: Insulin decreases; GLUT4 increases to promote glucose transport into muscle
T/F: Carb loading is a good strategy for all athletes.
False: only needed for endurance athletes like marathoners, swimmers, x-country skiers etc
How do we classify fatty acids?
- Chain Length (# of carbons)
2. Saturation (# of double bonds)
What is the chain length for short, medium, and long chain FA?
short: 4-6 C long
medium: 8-12 C long
long: 14-24 C long
T/F: MUFA’s and PUFA’s are the oils, and saturated FA are fats.
In what products are you likely to find high saturated FA content?
Animal fats (dairy),
Olive oil contains MUFA’s or PUFA’s?
What is a methylene interruption?
Methyl group found between double bonds of a PUFA allowing for a more flexible structure
If you see the words “partially hydrogenated”, what should you think?
An Omega-6 deficiency would present with what?
Scaly skin, extreme thirst. (Consume more ARA)
An Omega-3 deficiency would present with what?
Visual problems and peripheral neuropathy (Consume more EPA & DHA)
Arachadonic acid is an omega-__ and eicosapentanoic acid is an omega-__.
ARA= omega-6 EPA= omega-3
T/F: EPA (n-3) under the COX and LOX pathway produce products that have little effect on inflammation.
True; ARA, an n-6, under COX & LOX produces inflammatory components
30-70% of energy used at rest comes from: carbs, lipids, or proteins?
How much of our energy should be coming from total fats? MUFA’s specifically?
Total fats: 30%
What are the 2 reactive oxygen species (ROS) radicals?
Nitric oxide is what type of reactive species?
Reactive Nitrogen Species Radical (RNS Radical)
What are the 2 ROS non-radicals?
What is unique about superoxide radical?
Cannot diffuse thru lipid bilayer, therefore won’t kill other cells around it.
___ ___ are the most potent of all ROS/RNS.
Hydroxyl radicals (b/c they can attack any compound including DNA)
T/F: The 3 types of Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) are eNOS, nNOS, & iNOS.
__ & ___ are the NOS’s that are vasodilators that also help decrease clotting.
T/F: iNOS can be made by all cells, is cytotoxic, and increases the risk of cancer and heart failure.
What is an antioxidant?
Anything that can decrease oxidation by getting rid of free radicals
What are the 3 enzymatic antioxidants?
Zinc & Copper Superoxide dismutase is found in the ___, whereas Manganese Superoxide dismutase is found in the ___.
Zn, Cu SOD–> cytosol
Mn SOD–> mitochondria
Vitamins A, E, & C act as nonenzymatic antioxidants by doing what?
Donating hydrogen to radicals
One deficient in manganese may accumulate which radical?
Superoxide, (b/c Mn is needed for superoxide dismutase)
Is Coenzyme Q10 a fat-soluble or water-soluble H-donor?
Fat soluble (along w/ Vit E and carotenoids, proformed vitA)
T/F: Glutathione is a fat-soluble H-donor that contains glycine, cysteine, and glutamate.
What 4 substances are able to regenerate Vitamin E?
____ have many conjugated double bonds which will act as primary antioxidant by accepting free radicals and as a secondary antioxidant by quenching singlet oxygen.
In order to get ATP from TG, we require what 3 lipases?
Adipose triglyceride lipase (TG–>DG)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (DG–>MG)
Monoglyceride lipase (MG–>Glycerol +3FFA)
Which lipase is the rate limitor in the process of getting ATP from TG?
Adipose TG lipase
What percent of FFA are reesterified back into TG during rest? During exercise?
When we break down TG into FFA & Glycerol, what happens to the glycerol?
Used to make glucose thru gluconeogenesis in the liver
There are _ essential & _ nonessential amino acids?
9 essential, 11 nonessential
T/F: Exogenous amino acids are the same as essential amino acids.
What are the 9 essential amino acids?
PVT MT HILL (phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan…methionine, threonine …histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine)
What are complete proteins?
Foods that contain all essential amino acids like animal proteins and a few plant proteins.
What are the 3 complete proteins that are plant proteins?
Soy, Amaranth, & Quinoa
Wheat and rice are incomplete proteins because they are deficient in which amino acid?
Legumes are deficient in which amino acid?
Corn is deficient in which 2 amino acids?
Lysine and tryptophan
What are complimentary proteins?
Combination of 2 incomplete proteins to get all 9 essential amino acids like red beans and rice
What is a positive nitrogen balance?
Consumption of nitrogen exceeds nitrogen excretion (muscle building, growth etc)
T/F: The limiting amino acid is the amino acid that is found in the smallest quantity and limits the amount of proteins that can be made.
What is the protein efficiency ratio (PER)?
(Gains in body weight in grams)/(Grams of protein consumed)
T/F: The higher the biological value, the closer the AA profile is to what the body requires.
What protein quality evaluation is used for infant formula or baby food?
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
For food for kids ages 1-4, which protein quality evaluation test is used?
PDCAAS (protein digestibility corrected amino acid score)
Proteins have __kcal/g.
What is the RDA for proteins?
0.8g/kg body weight (0.36g/lb body weight)
What is marasmus?
(Protein-Energy Malnutrition) Severe protein deficiency leading to wasting appearance
What is kwashiorkor?
(Protein Malnutrition) Enough overall calories but protein deficiency, usually from polished rice diet. Leads to stomach distension, fatty liver…
What is deficient in phenylketouria?
Lack enzyme to metabolize phenylalanine. Limit phenylalanine and supplement tyrosine.
___ replaces valine in sickle cell anemia causing incorrect folding.
Phenylalanine is missing in ___ ____ causing incorrect folding and breakdown of protein leading to mucus buildup in resp and dig systems.
Which immunoglobulin is increased in food allergies?
What are the big 8 food allergies?
Nuts, peanuts, shellfish, fish
Eggs, wheat, milk, soy
The big 8 cause __% of food allergies?
When should you introduce your infant to milk?
When should you introduce most of the other big 8?
After 6 months (except nuts & peanuts, wait til they have teeth. duh)
What is the gold standard for testing for food allergies?
Double blind, placebo controlled food challenge
Is the RAST test good for testing food allergies?
No, neither specific nor reliable
Using the elimination diet, how long do you need to avoid the food prior to reintroduction?
4 wks (then add food back in for 2-4wks then remove again for 2-4 wks)
Is IgG elevated during food allergic reaction?
No, IgG is produced in response to normal food consumption.
T/F: Food intolerances are associated with antibody formation.
False, no Ab formed
Which food intolerance occurs in 25% of Americans?
Lactose intolerance due to missing lactase enzyme
Which food intolerance reaction is caused by a preservative found in beer, wine, and processed food?
What is Chinese restaurant syndrome caused by?
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intolerance
Pescovegetarians restrict ___ from their diet?
What are some nutrients of concern regarding vegetarians?
Protein, iron, vit b12–> if meats gone
Vit D, calcium–> if dairy gone
Which organ receives about 60% of all glucose?
Which 4 lipoproteins are we concerned with?
Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL
Which lipoprotein is responsible for transporting fat soluble vitamins?
Chylomicrons, which contain mostly TG
Apo_-_ on chylomicrons and VLDL activate ___ ____ which breaks down TG to FA and glycerol.
ApoC-2; Lipoprotein lipase
What is the main FA produced by the liver?
How does LDL enter a cell?
ApoB-100 binds onto LDL receptor on cell
What is responsible for regulating cellular cholesterol concentration?
What are the 3 ways free cholesterol regulates cellular cholesterol concentration?
- Inhibit rate-limiting enzyme in chol synthesis (HMG CoA reductase)
- Decrease LDL receptor synthesis (which brings chol into cells)
- Promotes storing chol as a cholesterol ester, which is cholesterol bound to a FA
HDL depends on which metal in order to scavenge for free cholesterol?
What is the Cu-dependent enzyme required by HDL in order to pick up free cholesterol?
Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)
___ delivers TG from SI to cells whereas ___ delivers TG from liver to cells.
Where is apoA-1 found and what is it’s function?
HDL; activates LCAT enzyme to pick up free cholesterol
What is the other apoprotein found on HDL that acts as a LDL receptor ligand?
Which enzyme is responsible for causing excess cholesterol to be stored as cholesterol esters when HDL levels are low?
Acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)
Where are branched chain amino acids degraded: liver, adipose, skeletal muscle?
About how many grams of glucose from carbohydrates does our brain use daily?
T/F: The brain has adequate stores of TG & albumin-bound FA if we eliminate carbs from our diet.
False, blood brain barrier prevents TG & FA from crossing
Which amino acids are not glucogenic?
What replaces glucose as main energy source for brain after 2-3 weeks of fasting?
In late fasting, 50% of gluconeogenesis occurs in the ___.
Which amino acid released by muscle is taken up by the kidney and used for gluconeogenesis?
What is the recommended daily dose of protein needed when resistance training?
1.5-1.7 g/kg of body weight while resistance training
remember bare min is 0.8g/kg
Muscle consists of about 70% ___, 22% ___, and the remainder is lipids.
T/F: Hydrolysate is absorbed faster than intact protein and also will stimulate protein synthesis.
T/F: Creatine is beneficial for short, high-intensity exercise.
What is the crossover effect?
During light intensity exercise, most E is coming from lipids rather than carbs. But as intensity increases more E comes from carbs rather than lipid. (Observed crossover when plotted on a graph)
T/F: Pre-activity consumption of high fiber foods is recommended.
The combination of ___ & ___ increased carb oxidation rates.
Glucose & Fructose (but never fructose alone–>diarrhea)
What are the 3 branched chain amino acids?
Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine
T/F: Intense training increases the risk of URT infections, which can be combated by increasing your protein intake.
T/F: The thirst mechanism is responsible for replenishing dehydration during exercise.
False: only replaces 50% of fluid lost…must consciously make choice to drink more
Does someone above the age of 50 require more or less fiber?
Less, men are 30g/day and women are 21g/day
T/F: The average American meets their daily fiber recommendation.
False: Only consumes 12-18 g/day on average.
Which requires L-carnitine for transport into the mitochondria: short chain FA, medium chain FA, or long chain FA?
Long chain FA
How are short & medium chain FA transported in blood?
As FFA bound to albumin
How are long chain FA transported in blood?
As TG in chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, & HDL
Which metal is needed in the process of partial hydrogenation?
ARA–> COX–>_ series PG & TX
ARA–>LOX–>_ series LT
COX: 2 series PG & TX
LOX: 4 series LT
Both products are inflammatory!!
EPA–> COX–> 3 series __ & __
EPA–>LOX–> 5 series __
COX: 3 series PG & TX
LOX: 5 series LT
Both have little to no effect.
What are the 3 ways superoxide is produced?
- Respiratory burst in WBC
- Normally in Electron Transport Chain
- During detox by cytochrome P450 enzymes
Glutathione peroxidase requires ___.
Iron is needed for which enzymatic antioxidant: SOD, Glutathione peroxidase, or catalase?
What are the 6 conditionally essential amino acids (they are essential when AA precursor is deficient)?
(Got To Go PAC)
Glycine, Tyrosine, Glutamine, Proline, Arginine, Cysteine
What is PDCAAS?
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, uses milk or egg as reference protein to determine quality of protein in question
Are skin prick tests good for testing for food allergies?
Not really, inaccurate about 50% of the time
Why is HDL your ‘good cholesterol’?
Removes free cholesterol and brings it back to liver (note: it does NOT pick up cholesterol esters!)
When should you consume protein when resistance training?
1-2 hours pre-exercise & within 2 hours post-exercise
T/F: Co-ingestion of carbs & proteins decreased muscle breakdown and increased muscle synthesis.
For endurance exercise, what should be your protein timing?
20g immediately, then 20g every 4 hours for at least 12 hours.