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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

- regulates exclusive economic zones (EEZ) and territorial seas

- dispute relation through the Permanent Court of Arbitration (founded in 1899) or other international tribunals


Three Types of Territorial Objects under UNCLOS

1.) Low-tide Elevations: a land mass above water only at low tide
- no territorial sea or EEZ

2.) Rock: a landmass permanently above water but unable to sustain human habitation or economic life on its own
- territorial sea but no EEZ

3.) Island: a land mass permanently above water that can sustain human habitation or economic life on its own
- territorial sea and EEZ
- artificially created islands DO NOT COUNT


The Caste System

a part of the Hindu religion that assigns a person to a position with society in accordance with the God Brahma


The Partition of British India


divided British India to Hindi-India and Muslim-Pakistan

India independence act of 1947 (included the dissolution of British government in India)


Non-aligned Movement

Nehru's decision to remain neutral during the Cold War

decision rooted in colonialism (the idea that India wants to control its own fate)

supported by the Indian elite



first president of the independent India

refused to take signs during the Cold War


Import Substitution Industrialization

a trade and economic policy that replaces foreign imports with domestic production

meant to decrease reliance on foreign dependencies

resulted in India's GDP growing faster and higher than China (1950-1980)



invaded by Pakistan in 1947-1948

caused an alliance to form between India and Kashmir (for protection)

resulted in war between Pakistan and India

reason to fight for it: taught that Kashmir was part of the "sacred homeland"


East Asian "Miracle"

- comparative advantage
- strong central state
- competent nationalistic bureaucracy
- industrial policy
- U.S. aid
- access to rich North American and European markets


Comparative Advantage

under free trade, countries will specialize in goods that make intensive use of factors of production with which they are endowed


Factors of Production (part of Comparative Advantage)

- land
- unskilled labor
-investment capital (infrastructure, machinery, financial resources)
- skilled labor


The String of Pearls

nickname given to Djibouti-Maldives-Sri Lanka-Bangladesh by Indian Military

China dedicated trillions of dollars to this route in order to become better connected with the world

provides military benefits (ability to move soldiers) and control trade

makes India feel as though China is invading


The Catch Up Effect

if you're a developing country, you have advantages over first industrializers and are expected to grow at a faster rate


Developmental State

Ex.) Japan

involves government directing investments in strategic sectors (manufacturing, etc)

results in higher domestic saving rates


Flying Geese Model

Japanese economic model following WW2

Japan will lead East Asia in economic and technological advancements and other countries will produce less advance technology that Japan has already surpassed


Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

China's alternative to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), free trade agreement

members include China, India, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Australia

excludes the US


Trans-Pacific Partnership

trade agreement between countries like the US, Singapore, New Zealand, Australia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

meant to lower non-tariffs and tariff barriers to trade and develop an investor-state dispute settlement

excludes China


The End of History

phrase used by Fukuyama in 1992

idea that after the Cold War, we are the end of man's ideological evolution and universalization of Western liberal democracy


Clash of Civilizations

hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world


Washington Consensus


important for determining policy toward economic development in East Asia

advocates for free trade, floating exchange rates, free markets and macroeconomic stability

made of 10 relatively specific policy regulations


Illiberal/non-Liberal Democracy

Ex.) Singapore

consists of "free" elections
- gerrymandering
- very short campaigns (making it difficult for opposition parties to form campaigns
- legal persecution of opposition figures
- no freedom of speech
- pro-PAP press


Shin on move toward Confucian Values

strengthening of confucian values leads to Illiberal/non-Liberal Democracy


Liberal Democracy

Ex.) United States

consists of free elections, civil liberties and human rights


Shin on move away from Confucian Values

a move away from confucian values leads to a liberal democracy


Asian Values

embodies the idea that freedom of the individual is a second priority; the collective unit must be protected

- loyalty to group leaders
- benevolent moral elite
- conflict avoidance
- sacrificing personal interests for the community and social harmony
- placing family above oneself


Lee Kuan Yew

"founding Father of Singapore"

- advocate for Asian Values
- first prime minister of Singapore in 1959


Kim Il-Sung

"Great Leader" 1948-1994

president for life of North Korea


Kim Jong-Il

"Dear Leader" 1994-2011

ruler of North Korea


Kim Jong-Un

"Dear Respected Marshall" 2011-current

ruler of North Korea


Six Party Talks


talks between Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and North Korea to negotiate the denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea, DPRK)