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Flashcards in Final, Super Important Only Deck (57):
1

Sentinel Event

serious safety error that causes death or serious injury like loss of limbs or function and needs to be further investigated for cause

2

RACE

Rescue Patients
Alarm
Contain
Extinguish

3

PASS

Point
Aim at base
Squeeze
Sweep

4

What should you do if there is a fire alarm, but there is no smoke or fire in your unit?

Close hallway and patient doors

5

What is the chain of infection?

infectious agent, source, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, host

6

What is MRSA treated with?

vancomycin (which may be very toxic to liver)

7

What is VRE treated with?

synercid and zyvox

8

Which diseases are airborne precautions?

TB, varicella, measles

9

Which diseases are droplet precautions?

pneumonia, meninjitis, flu

10

Which disease are contact precautions?

VRE, MRSA, C. Diff

11

What is enteric precautions?

Body fluids

12

What is strict precautions?

airborne AND contact

13

What is protective precautions?

Protects patient when they have low WBC counts

14

What do T-lymphocytes (cellular immunity) do?

Attack microbe at site of invasion and keep a memory of the antigen

15

What do B-lymphocytes (humoral immunity) do?

Produce antibodies which produce resistance

16

What is the first, second, and third lines of defense?

1. skin and fluid secretions (tears, oil)
2. inflammatory response
3. immune response

17

Besides UTIs, what are the other big HAIs?

surgical site, bloodstream, and respiratory

18

Iatrogenic infection

results from a procedure (UTI)

19

Exogenous infection

organism external to patient (c.diff)

20

Endogenous infection

part of normal flora, becomes pathogenic (streptococci, e. coli)

21

Prodromal stage of infection

nonspecific symptoms occur

22

Convalescence stage of infection

completes the progress of an infection- antibodies appear in the blood and body systems return to normal

23

What is normal ANC, and when does a patient need to be in protective isolation?

Normal is 1500, below 500 requires isolation

24

Isometric exercise

tensing a muscle, then releasing (quad exercises)

25

Which center controls voluntary movement? Involuntary?

Voluntary; cerebral cortex
Involuntary; cerebellum

26

What are the cardiovascular effects from immobility?

increased cardiac workload, orthostatic hypotension, increased HR, and decreased bp

27

Indications that a patient needs turned more than every 2 hours?

blanched or red areas, decreased cap refill

28

Hemostasis

Right after injury- vasoCONSTRICTION and clot formation

29

Inflammatory

1-3 days; vasoDILATION and phagocytosis

30

Proliferative

3-24 days; wound fills with granulation tissue

31

Maturation

up to 2 years: collagen scar gains strength

32

Primary wound healing

clean wound caused by sharp object; edges CAN be brought together

33

Secondary wound healing

some pressure wounds; edges CANNOT be brought together, epithelium grows over scar

34

Tertiary wound healing

large, granulation tissue fills in, closure with a scar

35

5 Cardinal Signs of Injury/Infection

redness, heat, edema, pain, altered function

36

Normal Glucose Level

70-110

37

What effect might corticosteroids have during surgery?

bradycardia and hypotension

38

What effect might antihypertensives have during surgery

decrease body's ability to handle stress

39

What are the early signs of malignant hyperthermia?

jaw muscle rigidity, increased CO2 volume, ventricular dyrhythmia, tachypnea, cyanosis, unstable BP

40

What are the antagonists for moderate sedation?

naloxone or flumazenil

41

What is conscious sedation used for?

diagnostic tests (colonoscopy, biopsy)

42

How soon after surgery to respiratory complications occur?

First 48 hours

43

What are two signs of hemorrhage?

low BP and high HR

44

Besides hemorrhage, when do circulatory complications occur post op?

7-10 days

45

How soon after surgery do infections occur?

3-6 hours

46

Difference between a-delta and c-fibers?

A-delta: sharp, localized pain w/ injury
C-fibers: dull, poorly localized pain after injury

47

What do prostaglandins do?

regulate smooth muscle contraction

48

What is modulation?

inhibition of the nocioceptive impulses in the CNS; after the brain perceives pain, it releases serotonin and NE to produce analgesia

49

What acts as a pain gate?

dorsal horn cells

50

What opens the pain gate? What closes the pain gate?

Open: a-delta and c-fibers
Close: alpha and betas fibers

51

What is acute pain associated with?

anxiety and fear, acute injuries

52

What is chronic pain associated with?

depression, frustration, and fear, prolonged tissue pathology

53

Manifestations of pain

INCREASED everything, including metabolism

54

Titration

Adjusting a drug's dose to a client's response

55

What is important to watch out for with Acetaminophen?

liver damage

56

If a patient is on an opioid, how often must they have a BM?

every 3 days

57

What types of pain is intraspinal drugs used for?

post op, chronic, and severe cancer pain