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Flashcards in Final Test Deck (23)
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1

Factors affecting breathing (Respiratory Rate)

-CO2
-O2
-Ph

2

Alveolar ventilation (Definition)

Air flow to the alveoli

3

Alveolar Perfusion (Definition)

Blood flow to the alveoli

4

Distinguish between Alveolar Ventilation and Alveolar Perfusion

Alveolar Ventilation is air flow to the alveoli and Alveolar Perfusion is BLOOD flow to the alveoli

5

Function of Digestive System

Brings essential nutrients into the internal environment so that they are available to each cell in the body

6

Path of food through the Digestive System (Gastrointestinal Tract)

-esophagus
-stomach
-small intestine
-large intestine

7

Identify 3 accessory organs and how each one contributes to digestion

-LIVER-produces bile
-GALLBLADDER-stores bile
-PANCREAS-secretes digestive enzymes

8

List 3 functions of the liver

-Detoxification
*liver cells transfer toxins into non-toxins
-Bile secretion
*bile salts are formed from cholesterol
-Storage of substances such as iron and vitamins
-Metabolizes proteins, fats and carbs

9

List 3 functions of the stomach

-Reservoir for food until it is partially digested
-Secretes gastric juice to aid in digestion of food
-Limited absorption

10

Identify the organ where most absorption takes place

-Small Intestine

11

Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion

-MECHANICAL-changes ingested food from large particles into small particles to facilitate chemical digestion
-CHEMICAL-involves changes in the chemical composition of food resulting in a physical change

12

Define peristalsis and segmentation

-PERISTALSIS: a wavelike ripple of the muscle layer of a hollow organ that produces forward movement of matter along GI tract
-SEGMENTATION: digestive reflexes cause a back and forth movement within a single segment of the GI tract

13

List urinary system organs and state functions

-KIDNEYS:
*maintaining water salt balance
*excretion of metabolic wastes
*maintaining a blood ph of around 7.4
*secretion of hormones
*primary functions: process blood and form urine
-BLADDER-stores urine.
-URETER-transports urine
-URETHRA-expels urine from the body

14

Urinary System Function

Produces and transports urine

15

3 major sections of kidney

-MEDULLA
-CORTEX
-PELVIS

16

What is a Nephron?

Basic structural and functional unit of the kidney

17

Define filtration, reabsorption and secretion

-FILTRATION:
*first step in blood processing that occurs in the renal corpuscles
*take stuff out of blood into tubes
-TUBULAR REABSORPTION:
*second step in urine formation
*occurs as a result of passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts reabsorb back into blood stream
-TUBULAR SECRETION: secreting out of blood stream

18

Identify how sodium is actively transported

Sodium is transported by the nephrons in and out of the blood stream and water will follow

19

List 3 water regulating hormones indicate they cause or appose absorption of water

-ADH-increases water reabsorption
-ALDOSTERONE-increase of water reabsorption
-ATRIAL NATRIURETIC HORMONE (ANH)- decrease of water reabsorption

20

Be able to label these parts...Refer to Slide 13 in Unit 5

-Glomerular (bowmans) capsule-------------------Glomerulus (capillary network)
-Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)------------Peritubular capillaries
-Loop of the nephron (henles loop)
-Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
-Collecting ducts

21

Gastrointestinal tract is made up of what 4 layers of tissues?

-mucosa
-submucosa
-muscularis
-serosa

22

List the 4 Kidney Functions

-Excretion of Metabolic Waste
-Maintenance of water-salt balance
-Maintenance of acid-base balance
-Secretion of hormones

23

What is chyme?

Produced by stomach. Acidic substance.