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What three ways do environmentalism of the poor/ecology of affluence movements differ?

Differences in
1. organization structure
2. origins of movements
3. perceptions of the human/nature dichotomy


Inglehart's theory of postmaterialism

the argument...
younger generations are shifting away from "concerns about economic and physical security" (material values) and are becoming more concerned with "freedom, self-expression, and the quality of life" (post-material)

the underlying premise...
we are better off today than before. as a result, we can afford to care about the environment

the findings...
where t`he materialist to post-materialist shift has occurred, support for the environmental movement and environmental action tend to be stronger

the problems...
1. environmentalism of the poor in the developing world is more materialist than post-materialist
2. greater environmental concern amongst the poor in places like the US
3. recent shifts may tend to go against inglehart's previous findings
--recession made us more material again


The Paradigm shift thesis

The premise...
as the material effects of our system of production become more apparent, people have become more environmentally aware

The argument...
a shift is occurring from the "human exemptionalist paradigm" (HEP) to a "new environmental paradigm" (NEP)
HEP-- humans are "exempt" from the natural laws and ecological constraints that govern other species
NEP-- humans are a part of nature and need to live within an inherently interconnected ecological world

The study...
examined the difference between
environmental values: the way people think it ought to be
environmental beliefs: the way people believe it is

The findings..
environmental values haven't quite caught up with our environmental beliefs

the problems...
trying to answer a temporal question (change over time) without longitudinal data


Ecological moderinization

the premise...
the recognition of environmental problems is starting to reshape the institutions and everyday social practices of modernity

the argument...
material conditions (environmental problems) shape ideas, which in turn reshape material conditions (solve and resolve ecological problems)

what drives society to solve such problems...
ecological rationalization-- environmental problems force us to increasingly consider more than economic, technological, political, and social reason for making decisions

montreal protocol regulation on global CFCs

the problems...
1) ecological modernization promotes the causes of environmental problems as solutions
2) ecological modernization is hobbled by an unflappable sense of technological, market, and governmental optimism
3) ecological modernization is only realistic in some places


The Denial Machine

The claims of deniers:
1) evidentiary basis of global warming is weak, if not wrong
2) net effect of global warming will be good for life, health, and agriculture
3) policies to ameliorate global warming will do more harm than good

the argument...
the conservative movement is a force of anti-reflexivity attempting to protect the industrial capitalist order of simple modernization

the theoretical underpinnings: Lukes three dimensions of power
1) decision making: protect subjective interests through direct conflict
2) non-decision making: confining the scope of decision-making to only issues that don't seriously challenge their subjective interests
3) shape desires: prevent observable conflict from arising by shaping people's perceptions, beliefs, and subjective interests via ideology and propaganda


Non-decision making techniques

1. obfuscate, misrepresent, manipulate, and suppress the results of scientific research
2. intimidate or threaten to sanction individual scientists
3. invoke existing rules or create new procedures in the political system
4. invoke an existing bias in the media


non-decision making technique 1: obfuscate, misrepresent, manipulate, and suppress the results of scientific research

How done?

1. fund and promote publications by contrarian scientists with positions at odds with scientific consensus
2. misrepresent research through errors of omission
3. manipulate results of scientific research by altering government reports before their release
4. suppressed scientific reports from government agencies


non-decision making technique 2: intimidate or threaten to sanction individual scientists

How done?

1. individual scientists brought under investigation for non-climate change related issues
2. government scientists told they cannot talk publicly without first having their comments cleared


non-decision making technique 3: manipulate results of scientific research by altering government reports before their release

how done?

1. held open investigatory hearings where the results were pre-determined
2. changed scientific rules that government agencies must follow


non-decision making technique 4: suppressed scientific reports from government agencies

1. claim media is bias in order to get more coverage for climate skeptics


Climate of injustice

what drives the non-cooperative behavior observed between the global north and global south in climate change negotiations?


need to understand how inequality affects
1. the problem structure of climate change
--the triple inequality: responsibility, vulnerability, and mitigation
2. debates about development and sustainability
3. trust, worldviews, and beliefs

the two pathways for international non-cooperation
1) the direct causal pathway:
north-south inequality --> lack of capacity --> noncooperation
2) the indirect causal pathway
north-south inequality --> structuralist worldviews/causal beliefs --> lack of reciprocity/generalized mistrust --> divergent and unstable expectations-->
1. emotional responses
2. inconsistent principled beliefs
3. risk aversion
4. zero-sum mentality
--> noncooperation


What is a commodity:

something produced for sale on the market


what is a fictitious commodity

things that are not produced for sale but are still sold (nature, labor, money)



the definition...
the extension, intensification, and acceleration of market-based forms of competition and commodification to previously excluded or insulated realms of political and economic life

the parts..
privatization: when clear private property rights are assigned to forms of nature that were previously state-owned, un-owned, and communally owned
marketization: when forms of nature that were previously insulated from full=fledged market exchange are placed within the realms of self-regulating market

de and re-regulation
when a state is 'rolled-back' and minimized, providing individual actors and localities with opportunities to self-govern resources and the environment, but within a centrally prescribed regulatory framework

the placement of previous state-sponsored services into the hands of civil society:
when civil society groups are encouraged to provide the insulatory mechanisms that states once offered, or could offer, in order to offset the negative effects of the aforementioned processes



the phenomena of socially and environmentally destructive corporations attempting to preserve and expand their markets or power by posing as friends of the earth



idea that capitalist consumption and sustainable living can go hand in hand... when a company or producer is making goods in order to actually create a more sustainable society


coercive vs. affective power

coercive power: takes control of the human psyche

affective power: empowers social energies/makes a person feel as if they are involved in making a product


the sustainability culture

political conception of sustainable living that struggles over the meaning and practice of sustainability


environmental inequality

underlying premise...
occurs when a specific social group is disproportionately affected by environmental hazards

dynamics that create and maintain environmental inequality
1) profit motives in the market economy push environmental concerns off onto those least able to resist
2) environmental inequalities unfold within the historical legacy of institutional racism


environmental racism

1) racial discrimination in environmental policy making
2) racial discrimination in the enforcement of environmental laws and regulations
3) targeting of community of colors for toxic facilities
4) excluding people of color from leadership in ecology movements


environmental justice

underlying premise
"all people and communities are entitled to equal protection of environmental and public health laws and regulations

the movement...
organized in the late 1970s and 1980s from grassroots organizations

the ideas
1. upholds the notion that all individuals have the right to be protected from environmental degradation
2. adopts a public health model of prevention (elimination of the threat before harm occurs) as the preferred strategy
3. shifts the burden of proof to polluters and dischargers who do harm or discriminate or who do not give equal protection to racial and ethnic minorities and the poor
4. allows disparate impact and statistical weight, as opposed to "intent" to infer discrimination
5. redresses disproportionate risk burden through targeted action and resources

the results...
federal: environmental racism recognized, executive order 12898
local: shut down incinerators, close landfills, improvements in containing existing environmental risks
litigation: attempts to use title VI of civiil rights act to close pollution facilities


Frame analysis

organizations and movements have a discursive frame through which they interpret history. this discursive frame gives a movement or an organization its identity and usually guides its collective actions

step 1: the delegitimization of the dominant worldview
step 2: the creation of a new narrative/discourse
-->narrative/discourse functions to provide common values, provide rationale for participating, resocialize members
step 3: conflict with dominant worldview results in the collective action

the problems...
1. limits alternatives
2. can be exclusive


resource mobilization

underlying premise...
the capacities of a social movement or organization are influenced by material resources (money, supplies, members, etc)
social movements should be understood in terms of conflict
success measured by acceptance of ideas into the mainstream and/or by increased levels of material resources

money directs action


historical analysis

movements and organizations form in response to general social patterns and at specific historical moments

potential problems...
when the moment is over, so is the movement


the protestant work ethic

human beings are not inherently driven to earn more & more money

if humans are not inherently driven to make more money, why do we work so hard to make more money than we need?

the argument...
ideas of predestination created a level of moral anxiety amongst early protestants and calvinists, causing them to be hard working ascetics who sought to portray themselves as heaved bound. in turn, this protestant work ethic inundated capitalist economic life and serves as the foundation for our system of rewards

in relation to the environment...
this work ethic, now secularized, spins the treadmills of production and consumption faster and faster


white’s historical roots of the ecological condition

the argument...
technological advancements, such as the moldboard plough, worked in unison with the ideologies of christianity to promote the domination of humans over nature



emerged in response to...
1. the ways in which women and nature were marginalized in modern, patriarchal societies
2. the patriarchal values of environmental organizations

the argument...
the subjection of women and the domination of nature are connected and the oppression of one cannot be eliminated without also eliminating the oppression of the other

descartes separation of mind and body led to divided-self theory whereby human as biological (matter/body) is separate from and subordinate to human as rational (mind/thought)

cultural ecofeminism
1. women have a biological connection to nature
2. the emancipation of nature and women comes through ending hierarchal structure of power based in patriarchy

socialist ecofeminism
1. rejects idea that women have a greater connection to nature
2. the oppression of women and nature is a result of capitalist patriarchy
3. the emancipation of women and nature result through the reorganization of society to one based on sustainable development, not profit


feminist environmentalism

the argument...
to understand the relationship between women and nature we need to understand the historical and geographical conditions in which they exist

how so...
1. recognize the material conditions of production, reproduction, and distribution and how these processes are gendered
2. recognize how these gendered relations mediate people's interaction with their environment and produce gendered environmental knowledges
3. recognize how environmental conflicts and environmental movements have come to have gendered components


poststructural feminism

examine how categories are constructed and stabilized within intellectual, political, and ecological projects

gender categories are culturally created-- and subsequently stabilized-- through repeated acts that have the effect of congealing over time to produce the appearance of something as substantial, real, and natural


social ecology

need to see the world and think through problems in a derivative and development way

biotic/first nature: Animals respond to nature and out of need for survival they change and adapt to their surroundings,more predictable, little frequency in how first nature has changed over time
social/second nature: moves beyond first nature, less predictable, huge changes in societal organization in relatively short period of time

•Second nature derived from biotic nature, where did history come along in relation to biology
the separation between biotic and social nature occurred when social hierarchies developed

History of nature and domination-- nature had no meaning in pre-literate society, nature as a separate entity only arose when hierarchy arose, natural domination arises when social domination arises

•Social Hierarchy and Domination-- moved from functional society to hierarchal society, shift from use value to other values
became hierarchal over time

why hierarchal?
oTechnology – mold board plow- rearrangement of roles, hunter gather society → physicality of having to use plow, men entered into agricultural sphere, men grew to dominate more areas of life rather than separate roles
oOld people also more involved in horticulture until it was taken over by men, elders councils created to protect their role
oPopulation increases leading to greater interaction with groups of more diverse people

markets, domination, and hierarchy
•Ancient market—medium of exchange, modern market—med of profit

•Need to see ecological problems as derivate of social problems, arose when social problems arose, and soc problems arose when hierarchies started to form
blames hierarchies not capitalism