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Flashcards in FINAL TO END ALL FINALS 2014 Deck (92)
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What muscles make up the abdominal corset?

Rectus abdominus, external obliques, internal obliques, transversus abdominus

1

What are the two deep external rotators of the hip that we can palpate?

Piriformis and quadratus femoris

2

What are the three glutes?

Gluteus Maximus, medius, and minimus

3

What are the adductors and where are they located?

Pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis, located on the medial thigh.

4

What are the quads and where in general are they located?

Rectus femoral, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius (impalpable), located on the anterior thigh.

5

Where is the adductor tubercle?

On the medial epicondylitis of the femur.

6

What are the two origins of biceps femoris?

Ischial tuberosity and lateral lip of linea aspera.

7

Where does biceps femoris insert?

Head of fibula

8

What are the hamstrings and where are they?

Semitendinosis, semimembrinosis, and biceps femoris, location the posterior thigh.

9

What are the actions of biceps femoris?

Extend hip, flex knee, laterally rotate flexed knee. Bc it's the lateral hamstring, inserts on fibula, etc.

10

What is the origin and insertion of semitendinosis?

Origin is Ischial tuberosity, insertion is proximal medial tibia at pes anserinus tendon.

11

What are actions of semitendinosis?

Extend hip, flex knee, medially rotate flexed knee. Also, tilt pelvis posteriorly.

12

What are actions of semimembrinosis?

Extend hip, flex knee, medially rotate flexed knee. Also, tilt pelvis posteriorly.

13

What are the origin and insertion of semimembrinosis?

Origin, Ischial tuberosity. Insertion, posterior aspect of medial Condyle of tibia.

14

What three muscles insert into pes anserinus tendon?

Sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosis

15

What is the origin and insertion for sartorius?

Origin ASIS, insertion proximal medial tibia at pes anserinus.

16

What actions does sartorius perform on the hip?

Flexion, abduction and lateral rotation.

17

What actions does sartorius perform on the knee?

Knee flexion, medial rotation of flexed knee.

18

What are the origin and insertion of Pectineus?

Origin, superior ramus of pubis. Insertion, pectineal line of femur (from lesser trochanter to linea aspira)

19

What are the actions of Pectineus?

Hip flexion, medial rotation, and adduction

20

What is the origin and insertion of adductor brevis?

Origin, inferior ramus of the pubis. Insertion, pectineal line and medial lip of linea aspera

21

What are the actions of adductor brevis?

Hip flexion, medial rotation, and adduction.

22

Which is more anterior, adductor longus or brevis?

Longus.

23

Which adductor is more posterior, brevis or longus?

Brevis.

24

What is origin and insertion for adductor longus?

O, pubic tubercle. I, medial lip of linea aspera.

25

What are the actions of adductor longus?

Hip flexion, medial rotation and adduction.

26

What are the origin and insertion of adductor Magnus?

O, inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium and ischial tuberosity. I,medial lip linea aspera and adductor tubercle.

27

What are the actions of adductor Magnus?

Hip flexion, medial rotation and adduction for upper fibers, extension for lower fibers.

28

What's a nickname to remember where gracilis is located?

Inner pants seam.

29

What is origin and insertion for gracilis?

Origin, inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium. Insertion, proximal medial shaft of tibia at pes anserinus.

30

What are actions of gracilis?

Hip adduction and flexion, knee flexion and medial rotation of flexed knee.

31

All adductors do what action?

Adduct the hip.

32

Which muscles medially rotate the hip?

Pectineus, adductor longus and brevis, and adductor Magnus.

33

Which muscles perform hip flexion?

Pectineus, adductor longus and brevis, upper fibers adductor Magnus, and gracilis. Sartorius. Rectus femoris. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia lata.

34

What is the common insertion of the quads?

Tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon

35

What action do all quads share?

Knee extension.

36

What's the only quad that moves the hip?

Rectus femoris.

37

What actions does Rectus femoris do?

Hip flexion, knee extension.

38

Where does Rectus femoris originate and insert?

O, Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). I, tibial tuberosity.

39

Vastus medialis: name origin, insertion, action?

Medial lip linea aspera, tibial tuberosity, knee extension.

40

Vastus lateralis: name origin, insertion, action?

Lateral lip linea aspera, tibial tuberosity, knee extension.

41

Vastus intermedius, name origin, insertion, action.

Anterior and lateral shaft of femur, tibial tuberosity, knee extension.

42

What muscles are in the lateral compartment of the lower leg?

Peroneus longus and brevis.

43

What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the lower leg?

Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, and peroneus tertius.

44

What muscles are in the superficial posterior compartment of the lower leg?

Gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris.

45

What muscles are in the deep posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibialis posterior, popliteus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus longus.

46

What action do all anterior lower leg muscles do?

Dorsiflexion at the ankle.

47

What is the origin and insertion of Tibialis anterior?

O, lateral Condyle of tibia, proximal lateral shaft of tibia, and interosseus membrane. I, base of first metatarsal and first cuneiform, the medial and plantar surface.

48

What are the actions of Tibialis anterior?

Dorsiflexion of ankle, inversion of foot.

49

What two muscles form the stirrup that helps support the transverse arch of the foot?

Tibialis anterior and peroneus longus.

50

What are the origins and insertions of extensor digitorum longus?

O, proximal anterior shaft of the fibula, lateral Condyle of tibia and interosseus membrane.

51

What are the actions of the extensor digitorum longus

Dorsiflexion and version of the ankle, extension of toes 2-5

52

What are the origin and insertion for extensor hallucis longus?

O, middle anterior fibula, interosseus membrane. I, base of the distal phalanx of first toe, dorsal aspect.

53

What are the actions of extensor hallucis longus?

Dorsiflexion and inversion of foot, extension big toe.

54

What is more medial, the tendon for extensor hallucis long or the tendon for Tibialis anterior?

Tibialis anterior.

55

What are the origin and insertion for peroneus tertius?

O, distal one third of the anterior fibula, interosseus membrane. I, base of fifth metatarsal, dorsal aspect.

56

What are the actions for peroneus tertius?

Dorsiflexion and eversion of foot.

57

What was the old name for the peroneus brevis and longus?

Fibularis brevis and longus.

58

What is the origin and insertion for peroneus longus?

O, proximal two thirds of lateral fibula and head of fibula. I, base of the first metatarsal and first cuneiform, plantar surface.

59

What are the actions of peroneus longus?

Plantar flexion and eversion of foot.

60

What are the origin and insertion of peroneus brevis?

O, distal two thirds of lateral fibula. I, base of fifth metatarsal, lateral side.

61

What are the actions of peroneus brevis?

Plantar flexion and eversion of foot.

62

Which is deep, peroneus longus or brevis?

Brevis is deep but crosses superficially at the ankle.

63

What are the origin and insertion for the gastrocnemius?

O, lateral and medial condyles of the FEMUR, posterior surface. I, calcaneus via calcaneal tendon aka Achilles' tendon.

64

What are the actions of gastrocnemius?

Plantar flexion of ankle, flexion of knee.

65

What are the origin and insertion for the soleus?

Soleal line of tibia, proximal one third of posterior fibula including head.

66

What are the actions of the soleus?

Plantar flexion at ankle.

67

What are the origin and insertion of plantaris?

O, lateral supracondylar line of femur, above lateral epicondyle. I, calcaneus via Achilles' tendon.

68

What are the actions of plantaris?

Plantar flexion of ankle and flexion of knee, both weak esp ankle.

69

What are the origin and insertion of Tibialis posterior?

O, proximal posterior shaft of both tibia and fibula. I, plantar surfaces of navicular, cuneiform 1-3, cuboid and bases of metatarsals 2-4.

70

What are the actions of Tibialis posterior?

Plantar flex ankle, invert foot.

71

What are the origin and insertion for flexor digitorum longus?

Origin is middle of posterior tibia. Insertion is distal phalanges of toes 2-5 (plantar surface).

72

What are actions of flexor digitorum longus?

Flexion of toes 2-5. Inversion of foot. Plantar flexion of ankle (weak).

73

What are the origin and insertion of flexor hallucis longus?

Origin is middle half of posterior fibula. Insertion is distal phalanx of first toe, plantar surface.

74

What are the actions of flexor hallucis longus?

Flexion of first toe, invert for, plantar flexion of ankle (weak)

75

What are the origin and insertion of popliteus?

Origin is lateral Condyle of femur, lateral surface. Insertion is proximal posterior tibia.

76

What are actions of politeus?

Flexion of knee, medial rotation of flexed knee.

77

Which malleolus is near pathway of flexors?

Medial malleolus.

78

Which two leg muscles have tendons that travel posterior to the lateral malleolus?

Peroneus longus and brevis.

79

Tendon of which muscle is between Tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus at the ankle?

Extensor hallucis longus.

80

What three muscles merge into the Achilles' tendon?

Gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris.

81

Which compartment of lower leg has muscles that can dorsiflex the foot?

Anterior.

82

Which compartment of lower leg has muscles that can evert the foot?

Anterior and lateral.

83

What is the difference in origins for Tibialis anterior and Tibialis posterior?

Tibialis anterior originates on the lateral Condyle of tibia, proximal lateral shaft of tibia, and interosseus membrane. Tibialis posterior originates on the proximal posterior shafts of both the tibia and fibula.

84

What does tom dick and Harry refer to?

Flexor tendons and other stuff passing behind the medial malleolus: Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial artery, tibial nerve, and flexor hallucis longus.

85

What are the arteries on the dorsum of the foot?

Dorsal pedis and arcuate.

86

What retinaculum or retinacula are on the dorsum of the foot?

Inferior and superior extensor retinacula.

87

What retinaculum is on the medial aspect of the foot?

Flexor retinaculum.

88

What retinacula are on the lateral aspect of the foot?

Superior and inferior peroneal retinacula.

89

In walking, that is the sequence of body weight distribution?

First is heel strike: Talus, calcaneus and navicular, calcaneus to cuboid.
Second is midstance: weight towards fourth and fifth metatarsals.
Third: weight rolls medialls toward large toe, push off with big toe.

90

What is the medial ligament at the ankle? Where does it attach?

Deltoid ligament, attached from tibia to talus, navicular and calcaneus.

91

What is the lateral ligament at the ankle and where does it attach?

Lateral collateral ligament is really three ligaments: anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament, and calcaneofibular ligament.