Flashcards in Finale Deck (165):
Chapter one of Woodhead focuses on the importance of _____ in Christianity
At the end of chapter one Woodhead discusses how Jesus' ________ sometimes acts as a severe "stumbling block" for people making it hard for them to subscribe to traditional Christian teaching
Which of the following is NOT one of the categories that Woodhead describes as part of the evidence that the Gospels give for their claims about Jesus?
Woodhead argues that the idea of Jesus as "the unique God-man" can already be seen in the New Testament writings of...
Based on Woodhead's presentation it seems that she thinks that ______ is/are the most important source for our understanding of Jesus
Woodhead argues that the 4th-century Christians who helped authorize the Bible as we know it were trying to emphasize Jesus' ________
Power and divinity
Gospels are the primary way of...
4 Things that the Gospels give us to persuade that Jesus is the "God-man"?
4.) The fulfillment of prophecy
5 versions of Jesus of human
4.) Jesus as God-man
Human exalted by God and is great because God made him that way and great so God adopted him
People that reject Jesus' divinity
Jesus as divine more than human, Jesus is messenger sent by God to inform and information equals salvation
Only SEEMED to take on flesh and ONLY divine
In chapter 2 Woodhead discusses how early Christian leaders developed _______ for the purpose of maintaining or building unity in the church
Woodhead argues in chapter 2 that the Holy Spirit's ________ can cause severe trouble for church authorities
In chapter 2 Woodhead argues that early Christians were able to connect Jesus with the history of God's work in the world by thinking of him as a "new _____"
Based on Woodhead's presentation in chapter 2 which of the following is the BEST statement regarding Christian artistic depictions of Jesus?
There are many ways of depicting Jesus
Which famous Christian thinker is most closely associated with traditional Christian teaching about sin and its origins with Adam and Eve?
According to Woodhead the Renaissance period in the West is associated with....
Depictions of Jesus that are more human
4 things that are important for Christians
1.) The Savior
4.) The Spirit
What are the 7 classic "topics" of Christianity?
What do we say about God?
What do we say about Jesus?
What do we say about the Spirit?
What do we say about human beings?
What do we say about salvation
What do we say about the church?
What do we believe about the last days?
What are the 4 main portions of church history?
1.) Early church
2.) Medieval church pt. 1 & early middle ages
3.) Medieval church pt. 2 & high/late middle ages
4.) Until present: modern church
30 CE/AD - 500 CE
Medieval church pt. 1 & early middle ages
Medieval church pt. 2 & high/late ages
Until present: modern church
What are the 4 important dates?
What happened in 312?
Legalization of Christianity (Constantine and the Edict of Milan)
What happened in 800?
Crowning of Charlemagne -- Holy Roman Emperor crowned by pope which framed Christian ideas about church and state (Working side by side but separately)
What happened in 1054?
Eastern and Western churches formally separate
What happened in 1517?
Martin Luther 95 theses
Who were the 4 important theologians?
1.) St. Augustine
2.) Thomas Aquinas
3.) Martin Luther
4.) John Wesley
4th and 5th century theologian who talked about original sin and total depravity
St. Augustine believed in what 3 things?
1.) Grace is a gift from God
2.) The Church: good and bad together
3.) Fallenness of sexuality is linked to the original sin
Catholic priest/monk (13th century) & university professor who believed in rationalism
Intellectual aspects of Christianity
Protestantism, salvation by faith, justification by grace priesthood of all believers participation of all in worship
18th century English - founder of Methodism and small group Christianity as well as take up offering
4 Additional beliefs of John Wesley
1.) Emphasis in exciting preaching
2.) Took Christianity to people
3.) Not bound by church walls
4.) Linked head and heart
4 Important church meetings or councils
1.) Nicea in 325
2.) Chalcedon 451
3.) Nicea 787
4.) Council of Trent 1550
Nicea in 325
- Was called by Constantine
- Topic: nature of Jesus and the idea of the Trinity
- Topic: nature of Jesus and divinity/humanity
- Results 100% divine 100% human
- Topic: okay to use pictures? statues?
- Result: because God became "visible" in Jesus there can be artistic representations
Council of Trent 1550
Response to Luther and Protestant reformation and rebuffed Luther and continued Middle-Age practices
Primary religion in Latin America
In the last 50-60 in Latin America there has been a growth of
Emphasizes a better life NOW not just in Heaven
What continent is historically mostly non-Christian and has native religions
In Africa Christianity was introduced by ________
Why was Charismatic Christianity experiencing rapid growth in Africa?
Growing (recognized and underground)
Mixed bag of religions
Paupa New Guinea
Christianity in place
Strong Presbyterian movement; many megachurches
Helps people; older people offer wisdom
Can discourage individual growth; people depend on leaders; people won't submit anyway
The term "Catholic" means ______
According to the author of your textbook, Church Christianity is marked by what 3 things?
3.) Social conservatism
Chapter 4 closes with Woodhead's discussion of how churches associated with Biblical Christianity are notoriously prone to....
A highly important text in the history of monastic and mystical Christianity is the "Rule of.....
- Led by Holy Spirit
- Often loosely organized (Spirit in charge)
- Often manifested in various groups but not restricted to specific denominations
- Prayer is a BIG focus - direct communication with God
- Can be highly individualized esp. In people's experience with God
-Often much more emotional in its expression than in other types of Christianity
Women tend to be attracted to Mystical Christiantiy
The Enlightenment placed emphasis on...
Individual reason for Christianity
Affection and personal relationships with God
Western Europe/America changed; social justice issues start getting more attention
Catching up with Modern philosophy/social issue
American, French and smaller European revolts (1848)
1960s emphasis on personal/individual opinions/values
Medeival to enlightenment to subjectivity
Associated with Mystical Christianity
3 things Charismatic Christianity focuses on
1.) The heart: Spirit
2.) Gifts of the Spirit
3.) Optimistic view of human nature
Associated with church & some biblical
- Disciples of Christ
- Some Methodists
Liberal Christianity places a big emphasis on...
Openness/acceptance as well as thinking for ourselves, solidarity with the changing world
Associated with Biblical Christianity
Fundamentalism focuses on...
-The heart: conservatism
- Traditions are good for us
- Inerrancy with regard to the Bible
-Reaching the modern world
Associated with Biblical and Mystical Christianity
Evangelicalism focuses on....
-The heart: personal relationship with God
- Very portable, sometimes devalues church membership/attendance
-Emphasis on missions
-Personal decision for Jesus
- Born in Ireland
- Went to boarding school
- Served during WW1
- After college became a professor
- Married late on to Joy
C.S. Lewis - Surprised by Joy
What members of Lewis' family are important to him?
Strict, physical punishment depended on his mood (changed after his wife died)
Older school boy: mentor, pessimistic and materialistic
What was an early theme in Surprised by Joy?
Theme of desires that are unattainable that hurt but are good, wanting something you can't reach
What were some important markers on Lewis' faith journey?
-Mother dies and it affect his view of how God works in the world
- Later on Lewis actively leaves faith of Christianity
- Challenging relationship with his dad
- While he is at Oldies his faith is being formed and shaped differently
- As a young man he had difficulties with prayer
- Houston Tx
- Reed College (highly secular)
- 2003 NY Times Best Sellers
Donald Miller - Blue Like Jazz
Important characters in Blue Like Jazz
- Dad = story of absent father
- Laura = student @ Reed's college; serious problems with Christianity and attracted but doesn't know why
- Penny = Christian friend and Preachers daughter to a church in the area
Important passage early on in Blue Light Jazz
Self reflection on pg 10, Romans 7, something not good - guilt
- Virginia (southerner)
- Interfaith (Jewish and Baptist)
- Cambridge: converts to Christianity
- Professor @ Duke
Lauren Winner - Girl Meets God
Important characters in Girl Meets God
- Friend Hannah: believer, married, met someone else and doesn't know if she is having an affair or not
- Pastor Mike: minister friends
Important passage in Girl Meets God
Courted by a very determined carpenter from Nazareth, miss things from paths not taken
________ has made its way into every part of our lives
Burdett calls Transhumanism a....
Kevin Warwick, professor @ U of Redding, implanted technology in himself and wife and were able to control electronic objects and feel each other's sensations
Aim to improve aging, psychological, physical and intellectual capabilities through technology and to use technology to overcome "basic human limitations"
Advancement through cultural means
Advancement through technology
Why should Christians be concerned because...
The changes are inevitable and they need to stay relevant if they wish to have any impact
Official international transhumanism organization called
How many members make up Humanity?
How many countries are involved in Humanity
Who is one of the top leaders in Humanity?
Treatment for a disorder or deficiency which aims to bring an unhealthy person to health
W.H.O. defines health as a...
State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Health is defined by species specific and statistical norms
Enhancements add to good health and make them "better than good"
Enhancement is an intervention of any kind that improves some capacity that normal human beings ordinarily have or produces a new one
Therapy and enhancement can't be differentiated by...
The act of taking or performing them (caffeine)
Some therapies lead to enhancements
4 Arguments for enhancement
1.) Free to choose
2.) What's the difference between material enhancements and biological ones
3.) It's inevitable
4.) Christians could advocate as co-creators with God
4 Arguments against enhancement
1.) Undermines values such as hard work
2.) Christians could say this altering the image of Christ
3.) See it as an immoral cop-out
4.) Crosses boundary; plays God
Regardless of position, Trans-humanism counters Christianity in stances on what 3 things?
2.) Human being
3.) The nature of our future
In his memoir Dawkins describes his father his father's two brothers all of whom were born in Burma and who eventually spent much of their lives working in different parts of...
Dawkins explains that as a youngster he was not such an outdoor person as his father or grandfather but was always attracted too....
Given her time period and geographical setting on one occasion Dawkins' mother took the unusual step of...
Following her husband into a war zone
Dawkins sees an example of skepticism in his early life in a reaction he had once to the character of ...
When Dawkins was at the Eagle School his favorite book was..
The Story of Dr. Doolittle
When Dawkins was at the Eagle school he prayed for...
His teacher to be transformed into his mother
-Noted atheist ("New atheism")
- Believes that religion faith is a delusion
- Coined the word "meme" originally in the context of genetics
What other book did Dawkins write?
The Selfish Game
What position at Oxford did Dawkins hold?
Chair of Public Understanding
What was Dawkins' academic career?
Zoologist and evolutionary biologist
Dawkins was raised as a Christian but converted to atheism because he believes theory of evolution provides better answers than religion
Dawkins as a kid...
- Liked to read
- Less practical than family
- History of religion in his family
- Exposed to religion @ school
Gonzalez begins his chapter with a lengthy discussion of the French philosopher named ______ famous for emphasizing universal doubt and strict rationalism
While rationalism Emphasizes knowledge gained through the exercise of "pure reason" _____ emphasizes knowledge gained through the human sense
In the 17th and 18th centuries a group called ______ rejected the extreme skepticism of the atheists as well as the narrow limits of traditional Christian orthodoxy, forming a religion based the natural instincts of every human being
The Scottish philosopher named _____ critiqued the idea that knowledge can be reliably gained from he senses because in reality all our sense can perceive are various attributes of things
In the section titled "New Currents in France" Gonzalez discusses Francois-Marie Arouet better known by his pen name_____________ who applied satirical wit to criticize what he saw as the excesses of various philosophical movements
At the end of the chapter Gonzalez discusses the German philosopher named _________ who bridged the gap between rationalism and empiricism by proposing a radical alternative to both systems in his work "Critique of Pure Reason"
-Born and raised in France but did most of his work in Netherlands
-"I think therefore I am"
- Catholic Christian that believe God exists
Getting knowledge through senses
-Mind is a blank state
- No innate knowledge
- All men created equal
- We can't know anything for sure (skepticism)
-Mid-ground between Empiricism and Rationalism
Moral rules that can apply in any situation
Using brain to figure out the questions of the universe
Republic better than monarchy/dictatorship
Politicis via Immanuel Kant
3 branches that create, evaluate and carry out laws
Physicist to Priest
-Was a professor of physics at Cambridge in the UK
- Became a priest in the Anglican church in his mid-40s
- Knighted in 1997 for contributions to relationship between theology and science
-Worked on cloning
-35 books mostly on science
- Foremost authority on science/religion intersection
- Believes in evolution
-Templeton prize for studies
- Increase in performance via genetic adjustment instead of steroids we can improve the DNA influence on muscles we can also heal/improve things like muscular dystrophy
- Cure immobility with old people, helps people with injured muscles
- Potential side effects of messing with your genes, genetic improvements can't be detected by things like blood testing
- Viagra for the brain: improving cognitive performance and memory there are pills and there MAY be genetic therapies
-Patients with Alzheimer's natural memory loss, memory loss as a result of trauma/stroke/etc. Eliminating memories on purpose
-Unfair enhancemetns of memory
-Improving height via HGH and genetic engineering
-Benefits: tallness is good because people treat tall people better
-Concerns: Tall people can ahve problems with their backs and feet
Who believes that it is our moral obligation to make humans better for our children and promotes overall human well being
Eugenics focuses on...
Reasons enhancement is good
- It is the person's interests
- It is reasonably safe
- It increases the opportunity to have the best life
- It promotes or does not unreasonably restrict the range of possible lives open to that person
- It does not harm other directly through excessive costs of making it freely available
-It does not confer an unfair advantage
- It does not place that individual at an unfair competitive advantage with respect to others
3 aspects of ethical enhancement
1.) The intervention cannot be delayed until the child can make its own decision
2.) the intervention is plausibly in the child's interests
3.) the child consents if competent
Humanity achieves emancipation through...
Postmodernism can be defined as the...
Eruption of differends in the sociopolitcal horizon in the wake of the breakdown of grand narratives
Aristotle learned by observation
Renaissance: humans looked at humanity as made in...
The image of God more than broken sinful Christians
Depiction of_______ tries to capture human detail
it's good to question intellectual authorities