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Flashcards in Finale Deck (165):
1

Chapter one of Woodhead focuses on the importance of _____ in Christianity

Jesus

2

At the end of chapter one Woodhead discusses how Jesus' ________ sometimes acts as a severe "stumbling block" for people making it hard for them to subscribe to traditional Christian teaching

Maleness

3

Which of the following is NOT one of the categories that Woodhead describes as part of the evidence that the Gospels give for their claims about Jesus?

His baptism

4

Woodhead argues that the idea of Jesus as "the unique God-man" can already be seen in the New Testament writings of...

Paul

5

Based on Woodhead's presentation it seems that she thinks that ______ is/are the most important source for our understanding of Jesus

The Gospels

6

Woodhead argues that the 4th-century Christians who helped authorize the Bible as we know it were trying to emphasize Jesus' ________

Power and divinity

7

Gospels are the primary way of...

Understanding Jesus

8

4 Things that the Gospels give us to persuade that Jesus is the "God-man"?

1.) Miracles
2.) Teachings
3.) Resurrection
4.) The fulfillment of prophecy

9

5 versions of Jesus of human

1.) Ebionites
2.) Adoptionism
3.) Gnosticism
4.) Jesus as God-man
5.) Docetism

10

Human exalted by God and is great because God made him that way and great so God adopted him

Adoptionism

11

People that reject Jesus' divinity

Ebionites

12

Jesus as divine more than human, Jesus is messenger sent by God to inform and information equals salvation

Gnosticism

13

Only SEEMED to take on flesh and ONLY divine

Docetism

14

In chapter 2 Woodhead discusses how early Christian leaders developed _______ for the purpose of maintaining or building unity in the church

Creeds

15

Woodhead argues in chapter 2 that the Holy Spirit's ________ can cause severe trouble for church authorities

Uncontrollability

16

In chapter 2 Woodhead argues that early Christians were able to connect Jesus with the history of God's work in the world by thinking of him as a "new _____"

Adam

17

Based on Woodhead's presentation in chapter 2 which of the following is the BEST statement regarding Christian artistic depictions of Jesus?

There are many ways of depicting Jesus

18

Which famous Christian thinker is most closely associated with traditional Christian teaching about sin and its origins with Adam and Eve?

St. Augustine

19

According to Woodhead the Renaissance period in the West is associated with....

Depictions of Jesus that are more human

20

4 things that are important for Christians

1.) The Savior
2.) Sin
3.) Salvation
4.) The Spirit

21

What are the 7 classic "topics" of Christianity?

1.) Theology
2.) Christology
3.) Pneumatology
4.) Anthropology
5) Soteriology
6.) Ecclesiology
7.) Eschatology

22

What do we say about God?

Theology

23

What do we say about Jesus?

Christology

24

What do we say about the Spirit?

Pneumatology

25

What do we say about human beings?

Anthropology

26

What do we say about salvation

Soteriology

27

What do we say about the church?

Ecclesiology

28

What do we believe about the last days?

Eschatology

29

What are the 4 main portions of church history?

1.) Early church
2.) Medieval church pt. 1 & early middle ages
3.) Medieval church pt. 2 & high/late middle ages
4.) Until present: modern church

30

30 CE/AD - 500 CE

Early church

31

500-1000 CE

Medieval church pt. 1 & early middle ages

32

1000-1500 CE

Medieval church pt. 2 & high/late ages

33

1500-2000 CE

Until present: modern church

34

What are the 4 important dates?

1.) 312
2.) 800
3.) 1054
4.) 1517

35

What happened in 312?

Legalization of Christianity (Constantine and the Edict of Milan)

36

What happened in 800?

Crowning of Charlemagne -- Holy Roman Emperor crowned by pope which framed Christian ideas about church and state (Working side by side but separately)

37

What happened in 1054?

Eastern and Western churches formally separate

38

What happened in 1517?

Martin Luther 95 theses

39

Who were the 4 important theologians?

1.) St. Augustine
2.) Thomas Aquinas
3.) Martin Luther
4.) John Wesley

40

4th and 5th century theologian who talked about original sin and total depravity

St. Augustine

41

St. Augustine believed in what 3 things?

1.) Grace is a gift from God
2.) The Church: good and bad together
3.) Fallenness of sexuality is linked to the original sin

42

Catholic priest/monk (13th century) & university professor who believed in rationalism

Thomas Aquinas

43

Intellectual aspects of Christianity

Rationalism

44

Protestantism, salvation by faith, justification by grace priesthood of all believers participation of all in worship

Martin Luther

45

18th century English - founder of Methodism and small group Christianity as well as take up offering

John Wesley

46

4 Additional beliefs of John Wesley

1.) Emphasis in exciting preaching
2.) Took Christianity to people
3.) Not bound by church walls
4.) Linked head and heart

47

4 Important church meetings or councils

1.) Nicea in 325
2.) Chalcedon 451
3.) Nicea 787
4.) Council of Trent 1550

48

Nicea in 325

- Was called by Constantine
- Topic: nature of Jesus and the idea of the Trinity

49

Chalcedon 451

- Topic: nature of Jesus and divinity/humanity
- Results 100% divine 100% human

50

Nicea 787

- Topic: okay to use pictures? statues?
- Result: because God became "visible" in Jesus there can be artistic representations

51

Council of Trent 1550

Response to Luther and Protestant reformation and rebuffed Luther and continued Middle-Age practices

52

Primary religion in Latin America

Roman Catholicism

53

In the last 50-60 in Latin America there has been a growth of

Charismatic Christianity

54

Emphasizes a better life NOW not just in Heaven

Liberation theology

55

What continent is historically mostly non-Christian and has native religions

Africa

56

In Africa Christianity was introduced by ________

Colonialism

57

Why was Charismatic Christianity experiencing rapid growth in Africa?

Native spirituality

58

Growing (recognized and underground)

China

59

Megachurches

Singapore

60

Mixed bag of religions

Paupa New Guinea

61

Christianity in place

India

62

Strong Presbyterian movement; many megachurches

South Korea

63

Helps people; older people offer wisdom

Good authority

64

Can discourage individual growth; people depend on leaders; people won't submit anyway

Bad authority

65

The term "Catholic" means ______

Universal

66

According to the author of your textbook, Church Christianity is marked by what 3 things?

1.) Orderliness
2.) Hierarchy
3.) Social conservatism

67

Chapter 4 closes with Woodhead's discussion of how churches associated with Biblical Christianity are notoriously prone to....

Division

68

A highly important text in the history of monastic and mystical Christianity is the "Rule of.....

St. Benedict

69

- Led by Holy Spirit
- Often loosely organized (Spirit in charge)
- Often manifested in various groups but not restricted to specific denominations
- Prayer is a BIG focus - direct communication with God
- Can be highly individualized esp. In people's experience with God
-Often much more emotional in its expression than in other types of Christianity

Mystical Christianity

70

T/F
Women tend to be attracted to Mystical Christiantiy

True

71

Late 1600s-1800s

Enlightenment

72

The Enlightenment placed emphasis on...

Individual reason for Christianity

73

Revivals

Affection and personal relationships with God

74

Western Europe/America changed; social justice issues start getting more attention

Industrial Revolution

75

Catching up with Modern philosophy/social issue

Modernity

76

Political revolutions

American, French and smaller European revolts (1848)

77

1960s emphasis on personal/individual opinions/values

Subjectivity

78

Two shifts

Medeival to enlightenment to subjectivity

79

Associated with Mystical Christianity

Charismatic Christianity

80

3 things Charismatic Christianity focuses on

1.) The heart: Spirit
2.) Gifts of the Spirit
3.) Optimistic view of human nature

81

Associated with church & some biblical

Liberal Christianity

82

"Mainline churches"

- Presbyterian
- Disciples of Christ
- Some Methodists
- Episcopalians

83

Liberal Christianity places a big emphasis on...

Openness/acceptance as well as thinking for ourselves, solidarity with the changing world

84

Associated with Biblical Christianity

Fundamentalism

85

Fundamentalism focuses on...

-The heart: conservatism
- Traditions are good for us
- Inerrancy with regard to the Bible
-Reaching the modern world

86

Associated with Biblical and Mystical Christianity

Evangelicalism

87

Evangelicalism focuses on....

-The heart: personal relationship with God
- Very portable, sometimes devalues church membership/attendance
-Emphasis on missions
-Personal decision for Jesus

88

- Born in Ireland
- Went to boarding school
- Served during WW1
- After college became a professor
- Married late on to Joy

C.S. Lewis - Surprised by Joy

89

What members of Lewis' family are important to him?

Mom
Dad
Brother

90

Strict, physical punishment depended on his mood (changed after his wife died)

Oldie

91

Older school boy: mentor, pessimistic and materialistic

Pogo

92

What was an early theme in Surprised by Joy?

Theme of desires that are unattainable that hurt but are good, wanting something you can't reach

93

What were some important markers on Lewis' faith journey?

-Mother dies and it affect his view of how God works in the world
- Later on Lewis actively leaves faith of Christianity
- Challenging relationship with his dad
- While he is at Oldies his faith is being formed and shaped differently
- As a young man he had difficulties with prayer

94

- Houston Tx
- Reed College (highly secular)
- 2003 NY Times Best Sellers

Donald Miller - Blue Like Jazz

95

Important characters in Blue Like Jazz

- Dad = story of absent father
- Laura = student @ Reed's college; serious problems with Christianity and attracted but doesn't know why
- Penny = Christian friend and Preachers daughter to a church in the area

96

Important passage early on in Blue Light Jazz

Self reflection on pg 10, Romans 7, something not good - guilt

97

- Virginia (southerner)
- Interfaith (Jewish and Baptist)
- Cambridge: converts to Christianity
- Professor @ Duke

Lauren Winner - Girl Meets God

98

Important characters in Girl Meets God

- Friend Hannah: believer, married, met someone else and doesn't know if she is having an affair or not
- Stephen
- Pastor Mike: minister friends

99

Important passage in Girl Meets God

Courted by a very determined carpenter from Nazareth, miss things from paths not taken

100

________ has made its way into every part of our lives

Technology

101

Burdett calls Transhumanism a....

"Psuedo-religion"

102

"Project Cyborg"

Kevin Warwick, professor @ U of Redding, implanted technology in himself and wife and were able to control electronic objects and feel each other's sensations

103

Aim to improve aging, psychological, physical and intellectual capabilities through technology and to use technology to overcome "basic human limitations"

Transhumanism

104

Advancement through cultural means

Humanism

105

Advancement through technology

Transhumanism

106

Why should Christians be concerned because...

The changes are inevitable and they need to stay relevant if they wish to have any impact

107

Official international transhumanism organization called

Humanity

108

How many members make up Humanity?

6000 members

109

How many countries are involved in Humanity

100 countries

110

Who is one of the top leaders in Humanity?

Nick Bostrom

111

Therapy =

Ethical

112

Enhancement =

Questionable

113

Treatment for a disorder or deficiency which aims to bring an unhealthy person to health

Therapy

114

W.H.O. defines health as a...

State of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

115

Health is defined by species specific and statistical norms

Juegrist

116

T/F

Enhancements add to good health and make them "better than good"

True

117

Enhancement is an intervention of any kind that improves some capacity that normal human beings ordinarily have or produces a new one

Allen Buchanan

118

Therapy and enhancement can't be differentiated by...

The act of taking or performing them (caffeine)

119

T/F

Some therapies lead to enhancements

True

120

4 Arguments for enhancement

1.) Free to choose
2.) What's the difference between material enhancements and biological ones
3.) It's inevitable
4.) Christians could advocate as co-creators with God

121

4 Arguments against enhancement

1.) Undermines values such as hard work
2.) Christians could say this altering the image of Christ
3.) See it as an immoral cop-out
4.) Crosses boundary; plays God

122

Regardless of position, Trans-humanism counters Christianity in stances on what 3 things?

1.) Liberty
2.) Human being
3.) The nature of our future

123

In his memoir Dawkins describes his father his father's two brothers all of whom were born in Burma and who eventually spent much of their lives working in different parts of...

Africa

124

Dawkins explains that as a youngster he was not such an outdoor person as his father or grandfather but was always attracted too....

Philosophical questions

125

Given her time period and geographical setting on one occasion Dawkins' mother took the unusual step of...

Following her husband into a war zone

126

Dawkins sees an example of skepticism in his early life in a reaction he had once to the character of ...

Father Christmas

127

When Dawkins was at the Eagle School his favorite book was..

The Story of Dr. Doolittle

128

When Dawkins was at the Eagle school he prayed for...

His teacher to be transformed into his mother

129

-Noted atheist ("New atheism")
- Believes that religion faith is a delusion
- Coined the word "meme" originally in the context of genetics

Dawkins

130

What other book did Dawkins write?

The Selfish Game

131

What position at Oxford did Dawkins hold?

Chair of Public Understanding

132

What was Dawkins' academic career?

Zoologist and evolutionary biologist

133

T/F

Dawkins was raised as a Christian but converted to atheism because he believes theory of evolution provides better answers than religion

True

134

Dawkins as a kid...

- Liked to read
- Less practical than family
- History of religion in his family
- Exposed to religion @ school

135

Gonzalez begins his chapter with a lengthy discussion of the French philosopher named ______ famous for emphasizing universal doubt and strict rationalism

Rene Descartes

136

While rationalism Emphasizes knowledge gained through the exercise of "pure reason" _____ emphasizes knowledge gained through the human sense

Empiricism

137

In the 17th and 18th centuries a group called ______ rejected the extreme skepticism of the atheists as well as the narrow limits of traditional Christian orthodoxy, forming a religion based the natural instincts of every human being

Deists

138

The Scottish philosopher named _____ critiqued the idea that knowledge can be reliably gained from he senses because in reality all our sense can perceive are various attributes of things

David Hume

139

In the section titled "New Currents in France" Gonzalez discusses Francois-Marie Arouet better known by his pen name_____________ who applied satirical wit to criticize what he saw as the excesses of various philosophical movements

Voltaire

140

At the end of the chapter Gonzalez discusses the German philosopher named _________ who bridged the gap between rationalism and empiricism by proposing a radical alternative to both systems in his work "Critique of Pure Reason"

Immanuel Kant

141

-Born and raised in France but did most of his work in Netherlands
-"I think therefore I am"
- Catholic Christian that believe God exists

Rene Descartes

142

Getting knowledge through senses

Empiricism

143

-Mind is a blank state
- No innate knowledge
- All men created equal

John Locke

144

-Scottish enlightenment
- We can't know anything for sure (skepticism)

David Hume

145

-Mid-ground between Empiricism and Rationalism

Immanuel Kant

146

Moral rules that can apply in any situation

Categorical imperative

147

Using brain to figure out the questions of the universe

Analytic philosophy

148

Republic better than monarchy/dictatorship

Politicis via Immanuel Kant

149

3 branches that create, evaluate and carry out laws

Montasceu

150

Physicist to Priest

Polkinghome

151

-Was a professor of physics at Cambridge in the UK
- Became a priest in the Anglican church in his mid-40s
- Knighted in 1997 for contributions to relationship between theology and science
-Worked on cloning
-35 books mostly on science
- Foremost authority on science/religion intersection
- Believes in evolution
-Templeton prize for studies

Polkinghome

152

Muscles:
-What's available
-Benefits
-Concerns

- Increase in performance via genetic adjustment instead of steroids we can improve the DNA influence on muscles we can also heal/improve things like muscular dystrophy
- Cure immobility with old people, helps people with injured muscles
- Potential side effects of messing with your genes, genetic improvements can't be detected by things like blood testing

153

Memory:
-What's available
-Benefits
-Concerns

- Viagra for the brain: improving cognitive performance and memory there are pills and there MAY be genetic therapies
-Patients with Alzheimer's natural memory loss, memory loss as a result of trauma/stroke/etc. Eliminating memories on purpose
-Unfair enhancemetns of memory

154

Height:

-Improving height via HGH and genetic engineering
-Benefits: tallness is good because people treat tall people better
-Concerns: Tall people can ahve problems with their backs and feet

155

Who believes that it is our moral obligation to make humans better for our children and promotes overall human well being

Savulescu

156

Eugenics focuses on...

Society

157

Reasons enhancement is good

- It is the person's interests
- It is reasonably safe
- It increases the opportunity to have the best life
- It promotes or does not unreasonably restrict the range of possible lives open to that person
- It does not harm other directly through excessive costs of making it freely available
-It does not confer an unfair advantage
- It does not place that individual at an unfair competitive advantage with respect to others

158

3 aspects of ethical enhancement

1.) The intervention cannot be delayed until the child can make its own decision
2.) the intervention is plausibly in the child's interests
3.) the child consents if competent

159

Humanity achieves emancipation through...

Scientific knowledge

160

Postmodernism can be defined as the...

Eruption of differends in the sociopolitcal horizon in the wake of the breakdown of grand narratives

161

T/F
Aristotle learned by observation

True

162

Renaissance: humans looked at humanity as made in...

The image of God more than broken sinful Christians

163

Depiction of_______ tries to capture human detail

David (Statue)

164

it's good to question intellectual authorities

Reformation

165

Middle ages: shifts

1.) Human beings became subject of sentence
2.) Earth as part of creation vs. the center of the universe