Flashcards in Finals Deck (33):
Wholeness of life
When you look back on your life and says:
"I had a good life"
When you say, "im ready to die"
-General = utilitarians
-Applied = capital punishment
-Metaethics = moral concepts & reasoning
Relativism vs Absolutism
Relativism = not universal
"It was ok with slavery because that was the way back then" it's relevant with that time. Not universal.
Absolutismen = universal
Morality that stays through time and all over the world.
-Bad morality can fall under consequences
-huckleberry Finn, he knew that it was wrong but he did it anyway.
Frank Jackson and Qualia
Frank Jackson believed that all mental languages can be analyzed into behavior.
Qualia - Subjective conscious experience
"Fred sees tomatoes, some look good others look bad. But some one else thinks that they all look good.
We all see things differently, Qualia
He believed that "self" was just a physical mirage, we have no knowledge about "self".
What makes a material world is the perceptions of it.
Body exist but they are not physical thing
Body is only what we are aware of
Ease est percipi =to be is to be percipi
If a tree falls in the forest does it make a sound? What forest?
Things only exist because we perceive them
Solipsism- you can only know your own mind
Bundles of behavior- If you want to know who you are, you need to study your behavior.
Rene Descartes meditation
Father of modern philosophy
1st - what can be called into doubt
-you can not trust you sentence
-waking vs dreaming
2nd -Cogito ergo sum- I think there for I am
I can think so I know that I exist
there is only one kind of stuff in the universe
Material objects are the only thing that exist
Non physical things are the only thing that exist, opposite from materialism
Descartes- body and soul
Soul, that thinking thing that controls the physical body
More then two thing that exist
5 was to show Gods existence
- motion: everything is in motion, everything moved forward and somebody must have put them in motion, that is God
-Causality, the first cause was God
-Governence of the world: intelligent design, things are so good around the world that somebody must have designed the world, that is God.
Priori vs. Posteriori
A priori - independent of senses "2+2=4"
A Posteriori- you are depending on your senses, "is there money in my pocket and you have to check your pocket".
Omnipotent vs omniscient vs omnibenevolent
Omnipotent - all powerful
Omniscient - all knowing
Omnibenevolent - all good
Punishment of a crime should be fitting the crime.
The stories of Adam and Eve, and Noah and the flood, the stories shows the evil of the God.
God punish all mankind because they ate a apple, God killed babies in the flood except for Noah and his family.
Christianity and genesis
Your body has a soul, when you die your souls leaves your body and your soul get judge in heaven.
Plato allegory of the cave
Enlightenment comes to being drag against your will. Knowledge comes to against your will to learn the truth. Knowledge is good!
Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic
Intrinsic value - things that are valued for what it is' "friendship, you don't value it for what it brings you, but for what they are."
Extrinsic value - valued for what it brings
"Money let you buy things"
Narrowly practical person, what philosophy can brings that person. Ends of life.
The instinctive man, acts impulsively, dont think logical.
The Magnanimous man, that understand things and thinks logical.
Fallacy error in reasoning
Ad Hominem vs. Ad Populum vs. Ad Verecumdiam
Ad hominem - attacking a person instead for the argument.
Ad Populum - believe in something because a lot of other people believes in it.
Ad Verecumdiam - inappropriate authority, a male talking about tampongs when he is not using them, wrong person talking about things they don't have any information about.
WK. Clifford, story of the ship owner
It is always wrong for everyone always to believe in something without evidence.
Deductively valid proofs vs. Inductively strong proofs
Valid- if the premise is true, then the conclusion have to be true. "I'm a man, therefor I'm a human"
Inductively strong- premises are try, then conclusion might be true. "Just because I'm healthy it doesn't men I will live until I'm 100yr."
Virtuous vs. Continent vs. Incontinent vs. Vicious
Virtuous, knows what's right and always does it.
Continent, consider wrong, but doing the right
Incontinent, knows right but does wrong
Vicious, always does wrong thing, don't care.
4 main Values
1st- self interest, you act only for you self.
2nd- etiquette, how you should act in moral situations.
3rd- Morality, differences between right and wrong
4th- law, what authority says.
All moral judgment are valued judgment, but valued judgment are not moral judgment.
Francis Bacon 4 steps to learning.
1 reading will give breath to thought
2 writing will give precision to thought
3 reflection will give depth to thought
4 Conference will make a ready person
Critical Realist vs. Naive Realist
Naive realist: believes that mind perfectly reflects the world. "What he sees is reality, tree fall and it makes a sound"
Critical realist: does not believe that. "Sound are vibration and there must be someone to receive the vibrations"
Contrary vs. Contradictory
Contrary - Only 1 can be true and the other is false. Or both can be false, but there can only be one truth.
I'm 5,6 foot tall
I'm 6 foot tall
Both can be wrong
Contradictory- one MUST be true
I'm over 6 foot
I'm under 6 foot
Cant be both false, must be one right.