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Flashcards in Finals Deck (33):

Aristotle Eudaimonia

Wholeness of life

When you look back on your life and says:
"I had a good life"


Aristotle euthanasia

Good death

When you say, "im ready to die"



Value theory

Normative ethics:
-General = utilitarians
-Applied = capital punishment
-Metaethics = moral concepts & reasoning


Relativism vs Absolutism

Relativism = not universal
"It was ok with slavery because that was the way back then" it's relevant with that time. Not universal.

Absolutismen = universal
Morality that stays through time and all over the world.


J. Bennett

Ought question
-Bad morality can fall under consequences
-huckleberry Finn, he knew that it was wrong but he did it anyway.


Frank Jackson and Qualia

Frank Jackson believed that all mental languages can be analyzed into behavior.

Qualia - Subjective conscious experience
"Fred sees tomatoes, some look good others look bad. But some one else thinks that they all look good.

We all see things differently, Qualia


David Hume

He believed that "self" was just a physical mirage, we have no knowledge about "self".


What makes a material world is the perceptions of it.


George Barkley


Body exist but they are not physical thing

Body is only what we are aware of

Ease est percipi =to be is to be percipi

If a tree falls in the forest does it make a sound? What forest?

Things only exist because we perceive them


Gilbert Ryle

Solipsism- you can only know your own mind

Bundles of behavior- If you want to know who you are, you need to study your behavior.


Rene Descartes meditation

Father of modern philosophy

1st - what can be called into doubt
-you can not trust you sentence
-waking vs dreaming
-Evil genius
2nd -Cogito ergo sum- I think there for I am
I can think so I know that I exist



there is only one kind of stuff in the universe



Material objects are the only thing that exist



Non physical things are the only thing that exist, opposite from materialism


Descartes- body and soul
Cartesian dualism

Soul, that thinking thing that controls the physical body



More then two thing that exist


Thomas Aquinas

5 was to show Gods existence

- motion: everything is in motion, everything moved forward and somebody must have put them in motion, that is God
-Causality, the first cause was God
-Governence of the world: intelligent design, things are so good around the world that somebody must have designed the world, that is God.


Priori vs. Posteriori

A priori - independent of senses "2+2=4"

A Posteriori- you are depending on your senses, "is there money in my pocket and you have to check your pocket".


Omnipotent vs omniscient vs omnibenevolent

Omnipotent - all powerful
Omniscient - all knowing
Omnibenevolent - all good


Retributive Justice

Punishment of a crime should be fitting the crime.


Mark Twain

The stories of Adam and Eve, and Noah and the flood, the stories shows the evil of the God.

God punish all mankind because they ate a apple, God killed babies in the flood except for Noah and his family.


Christianity and genesis

Your body has a soul, when you die your souls leaves your body and your soul get judge in heaven.


Plato allegory of the cave

Enlightenment comes to being drag against your will. Knowledge comes to against your will to learn the truth. Knowledge is good!


Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic

Intrinsic value - things that are valued for what it is' "friendship, you don't value it for what it brings you, but for what they are."

Extrinsic value - valued for what it brings
"Money let you buy things"


Bertrand Russell

Narrowly practical person, what philosophy can brings that person. Ends of life.

The instinctive man, acts impulsively, dont think logical.

The Magnanimous man, that understand things and thinks logical.


Fallacy error in reasoning

Ad Hominem vs. Ad Populum vs. Ad Verecumdiam

Ad hominem - attacking a person instead for the argument.

Ad Populum - believe in something because a lot of other people believes in it.

Ad Verecumdiam - inappropriate authority, a male talking about tampongs when he is not using them, wrong person talking about things they don't have any information about.


WK. Clifford, story of the ship owner

It is always wrong for everyone always to believe in something without evidence.


Deductively valid proofs vs. Inductively strong proofs

Valid- if the premise is true, then the conclusion have to be true. "I'm a man, therefor I'm a human"

Inductively strong- premises are try, then conclusion might be true. "Just because I'm healthy it doesn't men I will live until I'm 100yr."


Virtuous vs. Continent vs. Incontinent vs. Vicious

Virtuous, knows what's right and always does it.
Continent, consider wrong, but doing the right
Incontinent, knows right but does wrong
Vicious, always does wrong thing, don't care.


4 main Values

1st- self interest, you act only for you self.
2nd- etiquette, how you should act in moral situations.
3rd- Morality, differences between right and wrong
4th- law, what authority says.

All moral judgment are valued judgment, but valued judgment are not moral judgment.


Francis Bacon 4 steps to learning.

1 reading will give breath to thought
2 writing will give precision to thought
3 reflection will give depth to thought
4 Conference will make a ready person


Critical Realist vs. Naive Realist

Naive realist: believes that mind perfectly reflects the world. "What he sees is reality, tree fall and it makes a sound"

Critical realist: does not believe that. "Sound are vibration and there must be someone to receive the vibrations"


Contrary vs. Contradictory

Contrary - Only 1 can be true and the other is false. Or both can be false, but there can only be one truth.

I'm 5,6 foot tall
I'm 6 foot tall

Both can be wrong

Contradictory- one MUST be true

I'm over 6 foot
I'm under 6 foot

Cant be both false, must be one right.


Philosophy vs. Epistemology vs. Metaphysical

Philosophy - love of wisdom

Epistemology- theory/study of knowledge
- how you learn thing, and use it

Metaphysics- theory/study of the ultimate nature of reality.
- study of the force of nature