Finals Chapter 1-4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Finals Chapter 1-4 Deck (89):
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What is a chemical?

Any substance that has a definite composition

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5 layers of earths atmosphere

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

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CFC's

chlorofluorocarbons

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chemistry

the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

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matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

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mass

measurement that reflects the amount of matter

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weight

measurement of the amount of matter and effect of earths gravitational pull on that matter

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scientific method

systematic approach used in scientific study

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qualitative data

information that relates to the five senses

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quantitative data

numerical information

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hypothesis

tentative explanation for what has been observed

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experiment

set of controlled observations that test the hypothesis

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independent variable

the variable that you plan to change

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dependent variable

changes in response to the independent variable

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control

standard for comparison

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model

visual or verbal explanation of experimental data

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theory

explanation that has been supported by many many experiments

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scientific law

relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments

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pure research

seeks to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself

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applied reserach

research undertaken to solve a specific problem

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technology

practical use of scientific information

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base unit

defined unit in a system of measurement based on an object or event in the physical world

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second

SI unit for time

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meter

SI base unit for lengh

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kilogram

SI base unit for mass

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derived unit

unit that is defined by a combination of base units

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liter

metric unit for volume

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density

ratio that compares the mass of object to its volume

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kelvin

SI base unit for temperature

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scientific notation

a number between and 1-10, ten raised to a power

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conversion factor

ratio of equivalent. always =1

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accuracy

how close a measured value is to an accepted value

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precision

how close a series of measurements are to one another

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percent error

the ratio of an error to an accepted value
percent error= error/accepted value x 100

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graph

visual display of data

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giga

10^9

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mega

10^6

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kilo

10^3

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deci

10^-1

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centi

10^-2
1/100

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milli

10^-3
1/1000

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micro

10^-6

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nano

10^-9

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pico

10^-12

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substance

matter that a uniform and unchanging composition

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physical property

characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the samples composition

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extensive properties

dependant of the amount of substance present (ex. mass)

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intensive properties

independent of the amount of substance (ex. density)

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chemical property

the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances

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states of matter

all mater that exists on earth can be classified as one of these physical forms called states of matter

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solid

form of matter with its own definite shape and volume

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liquid

form of matter that flows, has a constant volume, and takes the shape of its container

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gas

form of matte that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of its container

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vapor

gaseous state of a substance that is liquid or solid at room temperature

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physical change

changes that alter a substance with out changing its composition

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chemical change

process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances

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law of conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction

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mixture

combination of two or more substances

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heterogeneous

can see the difference

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homogeneous

cant see the diffrence. solution

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filtration

technique that uses a porous barrier to separate solid from liquid

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distillation

separation using boiling points

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element

pure substance that can not be separated into simpler substances

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Compound

Combination of two or more different elements combined chemically

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Law of definite proportions

Regardless the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass

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Percent by mass

Ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound

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Law of multiple proportions

When different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers

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Dalton's atomic theory

All matter is composed of small particles called atoms

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Atom

Smallest particle of an elements that retains the properties of the element

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Cathode ray

Ray of radiation originated from the cathode end of the tube

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles that are part of all forms of matter

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Nucleus

Tiny dense region in the center of an atom that contained all of an atoms positive charge and virtually all it's mass

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Proton

A subatomic particle carrying a positive charge

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Neutron

Subatomic particle carrying no charge

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Atomic number

Number of protons in an atom

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Isotope

Atom with same number of protons but different number of neutrons

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Mass number

Sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

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Atomic mass number

Defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon -12 atom

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Atomic mass

Weighed average mass of the isotopes of that element

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Nuclear reactions

Reactions that involve a charge in an atoms nucleus

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Radioactivity

Spontaneously emitted radiation

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Radiation

Rays and particles emitted by radioactive material

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Radioactive decay

Unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation

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Alpha radiation

Radiation deflected toward the negatively charged plate

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Alpha particles

2+ charge

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Nuclear equation

Shows the atomic number and mass number of particles involved

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Beta radiation

Radiation deflected towards positively charge plate

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Beta particles

1- charge

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Gamma rays

High energy radiation that possess no charge