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Flashcards in Finals Chapter 5-6 Deck (42):
0

Amplitude

a waves height from the origin to crest or trough

1

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike characteristics as it travels through space

2

wavelength

shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuos wave

3

frequency

number of waves that pass through a given point per second

4

electromagnetic spectrum

encompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths

5

quantum

the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom

6

Planck's constant

6.626x10^-34 J*s

7

photoelectric effect

when electrons, called photoelectrons, are emitted from a metals surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface

8

photom

a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy

9

atomic emission spectrum

set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element

10

ground state

lowest allowable energy state of an atom

11

de Broglie equation

predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics

12

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time

13

quantum mechanical model of the atom

the atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves

14

atomic orbital

a three-dimensional region around the nucleus

15

principle quantum numbers(n)

indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals

16

principal energy levels

the atoms major energy levels

17

energy sublevels

contained in principle energy levels ( s, p, d, f)

18

electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in an atom

19

Aufbau principle

each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available

20

Pauli exclusion principle

states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins

21

Hund's rule

states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals

22

valence electrons

are defined as electrons in the atoms outmost orbitals

23

electron-dot structure

elements symbol surrounded by dots representing the atoms valence electrons

24

who was John Newlands

an english chemist who proposed that the elements made a periodic pattern which he called octaves

25

what did Mendeleev notice when the elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass?

there was a repetition

26

who organized the elements into the first periodic table?

Mendeleev

27

Moseley's periodic law states:

there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number

28

columns of periodic table

groups

29

rows of periodic table

periods

30

representative elements

the groups designated with an A (1A through 8A) also referred to as main group because they possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties

31

transition elements

the groups designated with a B ( 1B through 8B)

32

metals

elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean and solid at room temperature

33

alkali metals

group 1A elements (except hydrogen)

34

alkaline earth metals

Group 2A elements

35

Group B elements or _____ elements, are divided into _____ _____ and _____ ______ _______

transitions, transition metals, inner transition metals (lanthanide and actinide series)

36

phosphors

substances that emit light when struck by electrons

37

nonmetals

elements that are generally gasses or brittle dull looking solids

38

halogens

group 7A elements. Highly reactive

39

noble gasses

group 8A elements. Extremely unreactive

40

Metalloids

elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals

41

atoms in the same group have similar chemical properties, because:

they have the same number of valence electrons