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1

Choanocytes are a feature of the _____________.

Porifera

1

The term for the formation of a coelom from the outpocketing of the cell wall.

Enterocoely

1

This group is characterized by differentiated cell types, but a lack of true tissues or organs.

Porifera (sponges)

2

The term for animals without a coelom.

Acoelomates

2

What two purposes does the movement of the flagellum serve in choanoflagellates?

1) Locomotion

2) Feeding: as the choanoflagellate moves, it catches bacteria on a "collar" where they flagellum connects to the cell body.

3

In spiral cleavage, how do cells divide relative to the animal-vegetal axis?

Cells divide at an oblique angle.

5

Ecdysis is a synapomorphy of what group?

The ecdysozoans.

5

A(n) ______________ or 2-way gut is present in the MRCA of _____________, _______________ and ______________

The incomplete gut is present in the MRCA of cnidaria, protostomes and deuterostomes.

5

Metazoans have a general trend going from (internal/external) fertilization in more ancestral groups to (internal/external) fertilization in more derived groups.

Tend to go from internal fertilization to external fertilization.

6

What kind of symmetry does porifera have?

Porifera is asymmetrical.

7

Where is radial symmetry thought to have appeared? Where is it thought to have been lost?

In the MRCA of cnidarians, protostomes and deuterostomes. It is thought to have been lost in the MRCA of protostomes and deutertostomes.

7

Among metazoans, there is a general trend towards (extracellular/intracellular) digestion in more derived groups.

General trend towards extracellular digestion in more derived groups.

7

In animals, the zygote undergoes cleavage to form the ________, the second stage in the early development of animals.

Blastula

8

Monocots have __________ cotyledon(s), while dicots have __________ cotyledon(s).

Monocots have one cotyledon, dicots have two cotyledons.

9

Spicules are a synapomorphy of the __________.

Porifera (Poriferata, sponges)

9

Why is the hedgehog gene important in linking the animals to their sister group?

The hedgehog gene is only present in the choanoflagellates and the metazoa, but not in other non-metazoan taxa.

10

In ___________ cleavage, cells accumulate in even, symmetrical layers.

Radial

11

What three groups comprise the diploblastic metazoans?

Cnidarians, ctenophores, and placazoans.

12

The multiple cells resulting from the cleavage of the zygote early in development are called __________.

Blastomeres

13

Development where the blastopore becomes the anus.

Deuterostomes

14

Marine metazoans tend to undergo (internal/external) fertilization while terrestrial metazoans tend to undergo (internal/external) fertilization.

Marine animals tend to undergo external, terretrial animals tend to undergo internal.

14

What are three additional features seen in the body plans of bilaterally symmetrical animals?

1) Distinct anterior and posterior ends

2) Cephalization

3) Segmentation

15

A dependant gametophyte is a feature of the ______________.

Angiosperms

15

Where do the placazoans fall on the phylogeny of metazoans?

 

Placazoans are sister to all eumetazoans.

16

These are also known as "seed leaves".

Cotyledons

17

A dorsal, hollow nerve cord is a synapomorphy of the ______________.

Chordates (Chordata)

17

These cell junctions are distinct to metazoans.

Septate junctions

18

What are some of the similarities that gnetophytes share with angiosperms?

1)Loss of swimming sperm 2)Loss of archegonia (some Gnetophytes) 3)Double fertilization 4)Presence of vessels

18

The differentiation of the anterior end of an animal into a head with a concentration of sensory organs.

Cephalization

18

The skeletal elements present in sponges are called __________.

Spicules

19

The presence of collar cells, similar structure of the mitochondria, and presence of the hedgehog gene are features shared by the ___________ and ____________.

Shared by the metazoans and the choanoflagellate protists.

20

Where do cnetophores fall on the phylogenetic tree of metazoans?

Ctenophores are placed sister only to cnidarians.

21

What is a diplontic life cycle?

Life cycle where the main form of the organism is diploid, with only the gametes being haploid.

22

Porifera and cnidarians undergo __________ cleavage.

Irregular cleavage

23

Bilateral symmetry evolved in the common ancestor of __________ and ___________, but was lost in the _____________.

Evolved in the common ancestor of deuterostomes and protostomes but was lost in the echinodermates.

25

What is the common name for porifera?

Sponges

25

Which of these characterizes nematodes? A)Enterocoely B)Schizocoely C)Acoelmoates D)Pseudocoelomates

D)Psuedocoelomates; nematodes do not have a true coelom, so A) nor B) apply. However, they do have a psuedocoelom, so C) also does not apply.

26

Arthropoda, nematoda, annelida, and mollusca comrpise the _____phyletic group called _________.

The comprise the monophyletic group called protostomes.

27

In the water vascular system of sponges, water flows out of outcurrent pores called ____________.

Oscula

28

Of the following characteristics, which are unique synapomorphies of animals and which are non-unique?

-Collagen

-Multicellularity

-Diplontic life cycle

-Septate junctions

-Spermatazoa

-Blastula

 

Spermatazoa: b/c other organisms do not possess these distinct male gametes.

Collagen: not present in the extracellular matrix of other organisms.

Blastula: not a stage of development in other organisms.

Septate junctions: not present in the cell junctions of other organisms.

28

The skeletal elements of sponges, called _________ are composed of __________ or ___________.

Skeletal elements called spicules are composed of silica or calcium carbonate.

29

The distinctive male gametes of metazoans are called ___________.

 

Spermatazoa

30

The term for a cavity between the endoderm and ectoderm.

Pseudocoelom

31

Cnidocytes are a feature of the _____________.

Cnidarians

32

Absorptive heterotrophy is a synapomorphy of the __________.

Fungi

33

Porifera show what kind of symmetry?

Porifera (sponges) are asymmetrical.

33

Sponges have branched water canals called a(n) _______________.

Aquiferous system

33

Which sponges have skeletal elements composed of silica? Which have skeletal elements composed of calcium carbonate?

Glass sponges and demosponges have spicules made silica, calcareous sponges have spicules composed of calcium carbonate.

34

Chitin in their cell walls is a synapomorphy of ________.

Fungi

35

T/F?

The blastula is a stage in the development of all metazoans.

True

All animals go through a blastula stage in early development.

37

Protostomes are comprised of ____________ and ______________.

Ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoa.

38

It is thought that lungs in terrestrial animals evolved from the _____________ in marine animals.

Swim bladders

39

The in-pocketing of the ____________ leads to the formation of the _____________, later leading to the formation of cell layers.

Inpocketing of the blastula leads to formation of the gastrula.

40

Sponges undergo asexual reproduction through a process known as ________ or ____________.

Budding or fragmentation.

41

Type of lateral gene transfer where DNA is released from one bacterium into the environment, is taken up directly through the cell surface of another, and is incorporated into the recipient's genome.

Transformation

41

In ____________ animals, two cell layers called the ____________ and the ____________ are formed from the inpocketing of the blastula.

Diploblastic animals have an endoderm and an ectoderm from the inpocketing of the blastula.

42

The _________, __________, and ___________ make up the group opisthokonts, with __________ sister to ___________ and __________ sister to both.

Fungi, animals and choanoflagellate protists make up the opisthokonts with animals sister to chonoflagellate protists and fungi sister to both.

42

Small group of aquatic heterotrophic eukaryotes. Sister to animals.

Choanoflagellates

44

Deuterostomes include the groups _____________ and _____________.

Chordata and echinodermata.

46

The presence of a gut characterizes the _______________.

Eumetazoans, all animals except sponges.

47

The cells of porifera are arranged in a gelatinous mix called a ___________.

Mesohyl

48

The ctenophores and cnidarians (as a clade) are sister to the _____________.

Bilaterians

49

In sponges, water moves through the animal by the movement of ___________ of many _____________.

Water is propelled by the movement of flagella by many choanocytes.

50

A diploblastic gastrula is thought to have arisen in the MRCA of what two groups?

The placazoans and eumetazoans.

51

All metazoans with bilateral symmetry undergo (monoblastic/diploblastic/triploblastic) development.

All bilaterally symmetric animals undergo triploblastic development.

52

What are the four reasons that ______________ are thought to be sister to animals?

Choanoflagellates are thought to be sister to animals for four reasons:

1) Collar cells: these are shared between choanoflagellates and sponges

2) Mitochondria structure

3) DNA sequencing data

4) Choanoflagellates have homologues of metazoan cell signaling in adhesion genes

53

What is the animal-vegetal axis?

The longitudinal axis that develops in animals as a result of cleavage.

54

What groups comprise the ecdysozoans?

Arthropoda and nematoda.

55

An orchid's flower has multiple __________, but just one __________.

Has multiple whorls, but one floret.

56

Peptidoglycan in the cell wall is a feature of which of these three groups?

  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya

Bacteria and archaea

57

Monocots have their floral parts in multiples of __________. Dicots have their floral parts in multiples of __________.

Monocots have their floral parts in x3. Dicots have their floral parts in x4-5.

58

Trocophore larvae are a synapomorphy of the ______________.

Lophotrochozoans (Lophotrochozoa)

60

Porifera develop by (monoblastic/diploblastic/triploblastic) development.

Monoblastic

61

Deuterostomes develop by ________, __________ cleavage.

Deuterostomes develop by radial, regulative cleavage.

62

The hollow space inside of the blastula before it undergoes gastrulation called the ____________.

Blastocoel

64

A single, posterior flagellum (if present) is a synapomorphy of the ____________.

Opisthokonts

65

Name for an organism that can shift its metabolism between aerobic and anaerobic as needed.

Facultative anaerobe

66

What groups compise the lophotrochozoans?

Annelida and mollusca.

67

The __________ is the characteristic structure of the basidiomycota where spores are stored.

Basidium

69

The term for the formation of a coelom from the splitting of the mesoderm.

Schizocoely

71

The blastula is a synamoporphy of the _____________.

Metazoans; all animals have one in development!

73

Paired setae are a feature of the ___________.

Annelids (Annelida)

74

All bilaterians are:

  • Monoblastic
  • Diploblastic
  • Triploblastic

All bilaterians are triploblastic.

76

Why are the chytrids important to understanding the development of fungi?

They are the only fungi with a swimming spore stage; this infers that this feature was ancestral, then lost.

78

A water vascular system is a synapomorphy of the _____________.

Echinodermates (Echinodermata)

79

Porifera have what kind of gut?

Porifera (sponges) do not have a gut!

80

The gastrula is thought to have appeared between the ___________ and ___________.

Porifera and cnidaria.

82

These short stretches of RNA are involved in gene regulation; some are animal-specific.

microRNAs or miRNAs

84

Digestion done in a gut is considered (intracelular/extracellular) digestion.

Extracellular; however, cnidarians undergo extracellular in their gut and then complete it with intracellular.

85

Name three features that justify the placement of charales as sister to land plants.

  1. Use chlorophyll a & b
  2. Use starch for energy storage
  3. Retain eggs before fertilization (but they are not embryophytes!

86

The xylem transports ____________ and (does/does not) require energy input from the plant.

Xylem transports water and does not require energy input from the plant.

88

The __________ is the characteristic structure of the ascomycota where spores are stored.

Ascus

89

The cell structure of choanoflagellates is similar to the structure in the _____________ of sponges.

Structure similar to the choanocytes of sponges.

91

This group is characterized by pharyngeal slits and is sister to the echinoderms. Why is the presence of pharyngeal slits important?

Hemichordates; the presence of pharyngeal slits is important b/c it implies that they were lost in the echinoderms.

92

In angiosperms, _____________ have secondary growth while it is absent in ______________.

Dicots have secondary growth while monocots do not.

93

How do cells divide relative the animal-vegetal axis in radial cleavage?

They divide parallel or at a 90 degree angle.

93

What structures are present in nearly all viruses?

1) Nucleic acid

2) Protein capsid

94

The formation of cell layers by invagination (in-pocketing) of the blastula to form a "pocket" is called ___________.

Gastrulation

95

In ___________ animals, three cell layers are formed called the _______________, _______________, and ___________ as a result of inpocketing of the blastula.

Triploblastic animals have three cell layers called the endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm from the inpocketing of the blastula.

97

Radula are a feature of the ______________.

Molluscs (Mollusca)

98

All metazoans are characterized by this type of life cycle.

Diplontic

99

In the water vascular system of sponges, water flows into incurrent pores called ____________.

Ostia

100

______________, ________________ and ____________ all have segmentation. Therefore, this would be an example of (convergent/divergent) evolution.

Arthropoda, annelida, and chordata all have segmentation. This would be an example of convergent evolution.

101

The entrance to the "pocket" formed following the in-pocketing of the blastula is called the _____________ (i.e. not the "pocket" itself).

Blastopore

102

The bifacial vascular cambium appeared in the MRCA of ________________ and ______________, but was lost in the _____________.

Appeared in the MRCA of gymnosperms and angiosperms, but was lost in the monocots.

103

Cyanobacteria use chlorophyll (a/b) and release __________ during photosynthesis.

Use chlorophyll a and release oxygen during PS.

105

Animal development follows the progress of a ___________ to a _____________, then to a ____________.

The zygote develops into a blastula, which develops into a gastrula.

106

Demosponges have ____________, a complex network of collagen but lack the skeletal elements seen in other sponges.

Demosponges have spongin; other sponges have spicules.

107

Cleavage of the zygote leads to the ____________ stage. Further cleavage leads to formation of the ____________.

Cleavage of the zygote until the eight-cell stage. Further cleavage leads to formation of the blastula.

109

Pentaradial symmetry is seen in the _______.

Echinoderms (Echinodermata)

110

The phloem transports ____________ and (does/does not) require energy input from the plant.

Phloem transports sugars and does require energy input from the plant.

112

The ctenophores, cnidarians, and bilaterians comprise this group of animals.

Eumetazoans

113

What is a zoonotic disease?

A disease that can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans.

114

115

The inpocketing of the blastula is called _____________, and leads to the formation of the _____________, a "pocket" in the blastula. The inner layer of this "pocket" is called the ____________, and the outer, outside layer of the rest of the blastula is called the ________________.

The inpocketing of the blastula is called gastrulation which leads to the formation of the gastula. The inner layer of the gastrula is called the endoderm and the outer layer of the blastula now called the ectoderm.

116

This presence of this fibrous protein within the extracellular matrix characterizes metazoans.

 

Collagen

117

Arthropods, nematodes, annelids, and molluscs all undergo what kind of cleavage?

Spiral, mosaic cleavage

118

Explain the relationship between the # of cell layers (e.g. monoblasty, diploblasty, triploblasty) and gut development.

Monoblasty is associated with lack of a gut. Diploblasty is associated with an incomplete or two-way gut, and triploblasty is associated with a complete or one-way gut.

119

In __________ cleavage, cells divide at an oblique angle to the animal-vegetal axis, and new cells furrow between existing ones.

Spiral

120

Amoeboids move by extending ___________ formed from "flowing" their _____________ in a certain direction.

Extend pseudopods by flowing their cytoplasm in a certain direction.

121

Gastrulation always leads to the formation of what structure in adult metazoans?

Gut

122

Archaea and (eukaryotes/bacteria) are sister groups, with (eukaryotes/bacteria) being sister to both.

Archaea and eukaryotes are sister, bacteria is sister to both.

123

Ascomycota and basidiomycota comprise what group?

Dikarya

124

Seeds are a feature of the ____________ and _____________.

Gymnosperms and angiosperms.

125

A complete or _______ gut first evolved in the common ancestor of the ____________ and the _____________.

One-way gut first evolved in the common ancestor of the protostomes and deuterostomes.

126

All protostomes undergo _______, _________ cleavage.

Protostomes undergo spiral, mosaic cleavage.

127

The presence of a __________ allows for secondary growth.

Cambium

128

The coelom arises in a process known as ____________ in the protostomes and _____________ in the deuterostomes.

Schizocoely in the protostomes and enterocoely in the deuterostomes.

129

Development where the blastopore becomes the mouth.

Protostomes

130

To what group do platyhelminthes belong? (Hint: annelids and mollusks also belong to this group)

Lophotrochozoans

131

What are the four major synapomorphies of chordates?

  1. Notochord
  2. Dorsal hollow nerve cord
  3. Postanal tail
  4. Pharyngeal slits (at least in the embryonic stage)

132

The rasping, tonguelike organ used for feeding is called a __________. It is a synapomorphy of the ___________.

Called a radula, a synapomorphy of the mollusks.

133

These leaves are characterized by a single vascular strand, and a narrow structure.

Microphylls

134

Type of cleavage where cells, instead of depending on cell-cell interactions, are determined by cytoplasmic factors within the cell itself. These cells will form a given structure even if moved to a new location and exposed to cell-cell interactions and signals that differ from their original position.

Mosaic cleavage

135

Type of cleavage where the cells have no "predetermined" fate, i.e. they can be transplanted to another part of the embryo and form whatever structure belongs in that area instead of the structure that it would have originally formed.

Regulative clevage

136

Gram-(positive/negative) bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer surrounded by two membranes. This tends to make them (more/less) resistant to antibiotics.

Gram-negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer; however the two lipid layers surrounding it tend to make it more resistant to antibiotics.

137

Gram-(positive/negative) bacteria have a very thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall. This tends to make them (more/less) resistant to antibiotics.

Gram-positive bacteria have a very thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall. This tends to make them less resistant to antibiotics.

138

A sexually produced spore that buds from the surface of a basidium is a(n) ______________.

Basidiospore

139

Class of molluscs with a closed circulatory system and three hearts.

Cephalopods

140

Mosses are (heterosporous/homosporous).

Mosses are heterosporous.

141

___________ is used to insert new genes into a plant cell.

Biolistics

142

Morphologically, whisk ferns resemble ____________ because of their ___________________________.

Whisk ferns resemble rhyniophytes due to a lack of true leaves and roots.

143

If whisk ferns morphologically resemble the ______________, why are they now placed with the _____________?

Even though whisk ferns resemble rhyniophytes, they are now placed with the monilophytes due to their chloroplast DNA inversion.

144

Describe the three key steps in the "life cycle" of all viruses:

1) Virus enters host

2) Virus replicated within host

3) Virus moves to a new host

145

T/F?

All eukaryotes have a mitochondria.

 

False; plants are eukaryotes and do not have a mitochondria.

146

Bristle or hairlike structures present in many invertebrates. Paired in annelids.

Setae

147

In plants, the integuments develop into the _________________.

Seed coat

148

What hornwort trait supports their placement as sister to the vascular plants?

 

Indeterminate growtih of sporophyte

149

What are two features of all eukaryotic sexual life cycles?

 

  1. Meiosis of diploid cells
  2. Fusion of haploid gametes ot produce a diploid zygote

150

Which two groups of plants have vessels?

Gentophytes and angiosperms

151

Along with arthropods and nematodes, three other groups comprise the ecdysozoans. What are they?

  • Priapulids
  • Kinorhynchs
  • Loriciferans

152

This is a group of species-poor marine animals.

Ecdysozoans

153

154

Members of this group have thin cuticles that are periodically molted.

Ecdysozoans

155

Members of this group of animals are cylindrical, unsegmented, and wormlike.

 

Priapulids

156

T/F?

Segmentation is a synapomorphy of the ecdysozoans.

False; some ecdysozoans, including priapulids, are unsegmented.

157

Members of this group have a three-part body plan consisting of a proboscis, trunk, and caudal appendage.

 

Priapulids

158

Members of this group have a rigid exoskeleton as well as paired & jointed appendages.

Arthropods

159

Arthropods are an ancestrally aquatic group of animals. How did terrestrial members of this group prevent dessication?

 

Chitin waterproofs the arthropods, which helps prevent dessication.

160

Name four major clades of arthropods.

 

  • Crustaceans
  • Myriapods
  • Hexapods
  • Chelicerates

161

This group of animals was recently found to be more closely related to arthropods than annelids.

 

Onychophorans

162

This group of animals is characterized by soft, unjointed appendages and claws that may have made them similar in appearance to the ancestors of arthropods.

Onychophorans

163

  1. This extinct group of animals had the first jointed appendages, a segmented body, and a heavy exoskeleton which readily fossilized, helping us identify them today.
  2. What group are they thought to be related to? Why?

 

  1. Trilobytes
  2. Arthropods due to:
    1. First jointed appendages
    2. Segmentation
    3. Exoskeleton

164

What are the three parts of the body plan of hexapods?

  1. Head
  2. Thorax
  3. Abdomen

Same as crustaceans.

165

What are the three parts of the body plan of crustaceans?

  1. Head
  2. Thorax
  3. Abdomen

Same as hexapods.

166

This group of arthropods had a two-part body plan consisting of a head and a trunk.

Myriapods

167

Centipedes and millipedes are examples of this group.

 

Myriapods

168

____________ and ____________ feature a well-formed head, a long, flexible, segemented trunk, and lots of legs.

 

Centipedes and millipedes.

169

  1. Centipedes have _________ pair(s) of legs per segment, whereas millipedes have ________ pair(s) of legs per segment.
  2. Given the above, how many individual legs does each have per segment?

  1. Centipedes have one pair of legs/segment, millipedes have two pairs of legs/segment.
  2. Centipedes = 2 legs/segment, millipedes = 4 legs/segment

170

_____________ scavenge & forage for plants, wheras _____________ prey on insects & animals.

 

Millipedes scavenge & eat plants, centipedes prey on insects & animals.

171

In (centipedes/millipedes) two segments have fused into one segment.

Millipedes (this is why they have two pairs of legs/segment!)

172

Members of this group feature 2 pairs of modified appendages that form mouthparts, and four pairs of walking legs.

 

Chelicerates

173

What are the three major groups of chelicerates?

  1. Pynogonids
  2. Horseshoe crabs
  3. Arachnids

174

This group of small chelicerates is poorly known.

Pynogonids

175

This group of chelicerates is mostly carnivorous, but some eat algae.

 

Pynogonids

176

This group is considered a "living fossil" and is often mistaken as a crustacean.

Horseshoe crabs

  • ("mistaken as a crustacean" b/c they are called "crabs" although they are more closely related to arachnids)

177

Chelicerates, pycnogonids, myriapods and horseshoe crabs are all (protstomes/deuterostomes).

All of these belong to the arthropods, which are protostomes.

178

This group features a developed nervous system and paired setae.

 

Annelids

179

The cuticle of this group is shed four times.

 

Nematodes

180

This group features a water vascular system and tube feet.

Echinoderms

181

In cnidarians, the polyp stage is considered the (sexual/asexual) life stage and the medusa is considered the (sexual/asexual) stage.

182

This group of plants features apical cells along the filament, leading to the growth of a branched filament.

Chara

183

In what group did a stomata first appear in the sporophyte?

Mosses

184

Microphylls first appeared in the ____________.

 

Lycophytes

185

Enclosed structure in which spores are formed.

Sporangium (plural sporangia)

186

Male plants produce pollen by leaf homologues called _____________.

Microsporophylls

187

Female plants produce ovules by leaf homologues known as ______________.

Megasporophylls

188

Features of this plant group include sporangia in strobili at stem tips, whorled tiny leaves derived from megaphylls and a hollow stem.

 

Equisetum

189

Describe three important characteristics of equisetum.

  1. Whorled tiny leaves derived from megaphylls
  2. Sporangia in strobili at stem tips
  3. Whorled tiny leaves derived from megaphylls

190

Describe three important features of Psilotum.

  1. Sporangia within strobili at stem tips
  2. Leaves lost or extremely reduced
  3. Dichotomus branching of stem

191

Which group of plants feature parallel veination?

Monocots

192

Which group of plants features netted veinetion?

Dicots

193

Term for plants whose male and female strobili are on separate plants.

Dioecious

194

Which two groups of plants that you learned about are dioecious?

Gnetophytes and cycads

195

In what group of plants did the gametophyte become dependant upon the sporophyte?

In the seed plants.

196

The term for a spore-bearing leaf.

Sporophyll

197

  1. These cells are present in the phloem, have no nucleus but help in transport of sugars.
  2. What is the other type of cell that helps the one mentioned above?

 

  1. Sieve element cells
  2. Companion cells

198

Which two groups of plants have both an independant gametophyte and an independant sporophyte?

Lycophytes and monilophytes.

199

Which plant groups have lost swimming sperm?

Angiosperms and some gymnosperms (some of the gnetophytes)

200

What groups comprise the gymnosperms?

  1. Conifers
  2. Cycads
  3. Ginkgo
  4. Gnetophytes

201

  1. What is the function of gemmi cups?
  2. What plant group features them?

  1. Organ for asexual reproduction; holds gametes that disperse with rain
  2. Present in liverworts

202

This fungi in the clade of ascomycota is a parasite of insects that modifies behavior.

Cordyceps

203

This group of basal fungi is an intracellular obligate parasite.

Microsporidia

204

_______ rot fungi remove cellulose and hemicellulose.

Brown rot fungi remove cellulose and hemicellulose.

205

_________ rot fungi remove cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

White rot fungi remove all three components of wood.

206

"Dry rot" is a type of (brown/white) rot fungi.

Brown rot fungi

207

The ascus of ascomycota hold (how many?) spores from performing meiosis (how many times?).

Ascus holds eight spores from performing meiosis twice.

208

The basidium of basidiomycota hold (how many?) spores from performing meiosis (how many times?).

Basidium holds four spores from performing meiosis once.

209

What are the two types of mycorrhizae taught in class?

Ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae.

210

This type of mycorrhizae penetrates the cell of plant roots but not the cell membrane.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

211

This mycorrhizae has evolved only once.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

212

This type of mycorrhizae has evolved many times.

Ectomycorrhizae

213

This type of mycorrhizae penetrates the roots of plants, but not the cell.

Ectomycorrhizae

214

Present in the outermost whorl of flowers; enclose & protect the rest of the bud stage.

Sepal

215

These structures are present in the second-outermost whorl; their purpose is to attract pollinators.

Petals

216

Stamens are present in the ________ whorl of flowers (from the outside going inwards).

Third

217

The stamen consists of two parts, a stalk called the ________, which is topped by the __________.

Stalk called the filament which is topped by an anther.

218

Flower structure whose purpose is to produce pollen.

Anther

219

The innermost whorls of a flower consist of one or more units called __________.

Carpels

220

Hollow structure made of one or multiple fused carpels. Produces ovules internally.

Ovary

221

These structuers on flowers are megasporangia, and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes.

Ovules

222

What three structures compose the pistil of a flower?

  1. Ovary
  2. Style
  3. Stigma

223

This sticky structure at tip of the pistil is the receptor of pollen.

Stigma

224

This supportive stalk structure in flowers becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma.

Style

225

This group of molluscs lacks a radula; examples include oysters, scallops, and clams.

Bivalves