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Flashcards in Financial Reporting Deck (81):

What is the primary objective of accounting?

To measure income


What is the most authoritative set of accounting pronouncements?

The FASB Codification

All pronouncements fall under the Codification umbrella


What are the 2 Levels of Authority within the FASB codification?

Authoritative and Non-Authoritative


How does managerial accounting differ from financial accounting?

Managerial Accounting has a “timeliness” focus

Managerial Accounting is not required to follow GAAP


Which financial reports are required to be filed with the SEC?

Form 10K - Annual and Audited
Form 10Q - Quarterly and Reviewed


What is the focus of financial reports for individual companies?

Focus is on the needs of users to help them make decisions and assessments about the company

Does not make assessments of the economy


What are the Primary Constraints of Financial Reporting?

Cost vs. Benefit



What are the Secondary Constraints of Financial Reporting?

Consistency - Year vs. Year

Comparability - Company vs. Company


What are the Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting?

Relevance & Faithful Representation

Relevance - Makes a difference to the user


Predictive Value - Future Trends
Confirming Value - Past Predictions
Materiality - Could affect User Decisions

Faithful Representation

Completeness - Nothing omitted that would impact the decision-making of a user

Neutrality - Information is presented is without bias

Free from Error - No material errors or omissions


What are the Enhancing Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Reporting?

Comparability Verifiability Timeliness and Understandability

Comparability - Allows users to compare different items among various periods

Verifiability - Different people would reach a similar conclusion on the information presented

Timeliness - Information is made available early enough to impact the decision making of users

Understandability - Information is easy to understand


How does Conservatism affect the recording of accounting transactions?

When an estimate is necessary due to uncertainty conservatism chooses the best option that won’t overstate the financial position of the company


What is an accrual?

Earned (Revenue) or Incurred (Expense) but no Cash Receipt/Outlay yet


What is a deferral?

Cash Receipt/Outlay but not Earned (Revenue) or Incurred (Expense)


What is recognition in accounting?

When an item is recorded and included in the financial statements


Describe fair value with respect to an asset

The price you would receive if you sold the asset

Assumes asset is at its highest and best value

Assumes asset is sold at its most advantageous market to get the best price possible


What market assumptions are made in a fair value assessment?

Buyer and Seller are not Related

Buyer and Seller are Knowledgeable

Buyer and Seller are able to transact – i.e. This isn’t a hypothetical transaction for Fair Value measurement purposes. The buyer actually does have the $10M to purchase the asset you’re trying to value at $10M

Buyer and Seller are both motivated to buy/sell


What items are included in a Level 1 input in the fair value hierarchy?

Price quotes or market prices

For example NYSE or NASDAQ


What items are included in a Level 2 valuation input?

Interest rates

Prime rate


What items are included in Level 3 inputs of the fair value hierarchy?

Unobservable inputs such as assumptions or forecasts

Lowest priority for valuation


What are acceptable valuation techniques for fair value?

Market approach - uses market transactions and prices to value the asset

Income approach - uses present value discounts earnings

Cost approach - uses replacement cost to value the asset


What are current assets?


Inventory or Assets expected to be converted or consumed during a business' operating cycle

Deferred Gross Profit on Installment Sales (Contra Asset)

Receivables expected to be collected in 12 months or less


What are current liabilities?

Liabilities that will use current assets during the present operating cycle


What is an accrued liability?

Expense that has been incurred but not paid

Example: rents payable


What is a deferred revenue?

A type of current liability

Payments that have been received but cannot be recorded as revenue yet

Example: Tenant pre-pays rent – Landlord still must “perform” to earn it and is a liability until this happens


When are revenues recognized?

When they have been earned; i.e. company has performed


What is a gain?

Increase in equity from an activity or event that is not central to the main activities of the business

Can be operating or non-operating


What is a loss?

Decrease in equity from an activity or event that is not central to the main activities of the business

Can be operating or non-operating


What is an operating cycle?

Average time it takes to turn materials or services into Cash


What is the present value of future cash flows?

Valuation method - the current value of a future amount of money using a specific interest rate


What is historical cost?

How much an asset cost - (net of depreciation and amortization)


What is replacement cost?

How much it would cost to reacquire an asset today (Entrance Cost)


What is a market cost?

The sale price of an asset (Exit Cost)


What is Net Realizable Value?

Sale Price of an Asset - Selling/Disposal Fee


When is royalty income recognized? How is it recognized?

Recognized when earned

If the royalty % is applied against net sales then subtract the estimated return amount from the gross sales first and then apply the royalty rate


When is revenue recognized in an installment sale?

Revenue recognized upon receipt of cash

Only used when cash collection is uncertain


What is deferred gross profit?

Gross Profit that can’t be recognized until cash is received

D.GP = Gross Profit % x Accounts Receivable

Pay attention to the year if GP% varies


What is the cost recovery method?

No revenue recognized until all costs are recovered from purchase of the asset

Most conservative method of revenue recognition when collection of sale price is uncertain


What is subscription revenue? How is it recorded?

Payment has been received but performance is not complete.

As company performs revenue is recognized.

Recorded as a Deferred Revenue (Liability) on Balance Sheet


How are franchise revenues recorded?

Franchiser - Startup franchise fee revenue deferred until franchisee has completed substantial performance

Franchisee – Costs are deferred until corresponding revenue is recognized


How do you calculate sales revenue starting from cash basis income?

Mnemonic: SPEAR-BAR

Sales (i.e. Customer Payments)
+ Ending Accounts Receivable
– Beginning Accounts Receivable

= Sales Revenue on an Accrual Basis


How do you calculate COGS starting from Cash Basis?

Mnemonic: CRAP-I

Cash Remitted (i.e. paid)
+Increase in Accounts Payable
–Increase in Inventory

=COGS on an Accrual Basis


How are discontinued operations reported? When are they used?

Reported Net of Tax after Continuing Operations but before Extraordinary Items

Company decides to cease operating a segment of its business

Includes Income (or loss) from the period plus the gain (or loss) from disposal


What qualifies as an extraordinary item? How is it recorded?

Both unusual AND infrequent

Reported Net of Tax after Discontinued Operations

Note: Usual *or* Infrequent Items are reported as part of Continuing Operations


What is constant dollar accounting?

Adjusts assets to reflect a consistent level of purchasing power due to inflation

Uses the Consumer Price Index (CPI)


When are expenses recognized?

When they are incurred. Accrue if not yet paid.


What are accrued expenses?

Those incurred but not paid.

Product costs - Expenses should be matched with associated revenues as they are recognized (sales commission on a used car sale)

Period costs - Expenses amortized and recognized with the passage of time


When should impaired assets be written down to fair value and expensed?



What major items should be classified under General & Administrative (G&A) expenses?

Office staff salaries

Office/building rent

Office supplies

Note: Sales staff salaries and portions of the building assigned to Sales should be allocated to Selling Expense not G&A


What are business start-up costs?

One-time costs for opening a new business

Expensed as they are incurred


When is interest *not* expensed?

Interest on projects (software) for internal use is not expensed but is instead capitalized


What are the major components of comprehensive income?

Net Income + Other Comprehensive Income (OCI):



Cumulative accounting adjustments

Reclassifications adjustments

Non-owner changes in equity


What items are considered cumulative accounting adjustments?

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments

Unrealized gains on AFS Securities

Minimum Pension Liability adjustment for defined benefit plans


What is the purpose of a reclassification adjustment?

Avoids double counting items that were included in both Net Income and OCI

Example: AFS Securities previously included in OCI are now sold at a loss and reported on the Income Statement


Where is comprehensive income reported?

Reported in Stockholder’s Equity on Balance Sheet or in a Statement of Income and Comprehensive Income

Note: Earnings Per Share is not required for OCI


What disclosures on accounting policies are required in financial statements?

Accounting Principles used

Basis of Consolidation

Inventory Pricing Methods

Depreciation Method

Amortization of Intangibles


What are some major risks and uncertainties that must be disclosed?

Nature of Operations

Use of Estimates and listing of Significant Estimates

Concentration vulnerability


How should you go from Cash to Accrual accounting?

To go from cash to accrual accounting, need to take into consideration of the change in accounts

Whatever the "PLUG" figure is, it is the answer


How should you go from Accrual to Cash accounting?

When going from Accrual to Cash accounting, using the change in accounts method will NOT work

To determine cash sales, need to take total revenue and back out the accrued sales, which is the change in A/R for the year


How do you calculate Realized Income / Realized Gross Profit?

(Installment Sales formula)

Cash Collections
x Gross Profit %

= Realized Income/ Realized Gross Profit


How do you calculate Deferred Income / Deferred Gross Profit?

(Installment Sales formula)

Ending Installment A/R
x Gross Profit % (Amount of Income not collected)

= Deferred Income/ Deferred Gross Profit


What does beginning A/R represent for an Installment Sales problem?

Remember with Installment Sales, the beginning A/R balance is the "Installment sale"

Beginning A/R
- Collection on A/R for the year

= Ending A/R for the year


What do you do with interest income in an Installment Sales problem?

If interest income is included in the question, remember that all interest income is recognized immediately when the payment is received


Is interest income recognize when the Cost Recovery method is used?

Remember that we DON'T recognize interest income when using the cost recovery method

In the cost recovery method, principal and interest payments received are considered to be just a recovery of cost


How do you calculate Realized Income or Gross Profit?

(Installment Sales formula)

Net Sales (Installment sales - DO NOT use regular sales)

- Cost of Sales

= Realized Income / Gross Profit


How do you calculate Cash collected in an installment sale?

Beginning Installment A/R
- Ending Installment A/R

= Cash collected


How do you calculate Net Sales?

Gross sales
- Sales discount
- Sales returns & allowances

= Net sales


How do you calculate Gross Margin / Gross Profit?

Net Sales

= Gross Margin / Gross Profit


How do you calculate COGS?

Beginning Inventory
+ COG Purchased
- Ending Inventory



How do you calculate COG Purchased?

Gross Purchases
- Purchase discount
- Purchase returns & allowances
= Net Purchases

+Freight-IN or Transportation-IN
= COG Purchased


How do you calculate Operating Income / Operating Profit / EBIT?

Gross Margin / Gross Profit
- Operating expense

= Operating Income / Operating Profit / EBIT


How do you calculate Operating expense?

Selling expense
+ G&A expense
+ R&D expense
+ Org/pre-opening costs
+ Impairment loss (for SEC registrants)

= Operating expense


How do you calculate Income from continuing operations BEFORE taxes?

Operating Income / Operating Profit / EBIT
+ Other revenues/gains
- Other expenses/losses

= Income from continuing operations BEFORE taxes


How do you calculate Income from continuing operations NET of tax?

Income from continuing operations BEFORE taxes
- Income tax expense (Current + Deferred)

= Income from continuing operations NET of tax


How do you calculate Net Income?

Income from continuing operations NET of tax
+/- Discontinued Operations (net of tax)
+/- Extraordinary gains/losses (net of tax)

= Net Income


How do you calculate Total Comprehensive Income?

Net Income
+/- Other Comprehensive Income (net of tax)

= Total Comprehensive Income

NOTE: Need to list each of the comprehensive income items net of tax


What section does an impairment loss go on the income statement if a company is NOT a publicly traded company?

If an entity is NOT a publicly traded company, the impairment loss goes under Other Expenses + Losses

If the entity IS a publicly traded company, then the impairment loss would go in the Operating Expenses category on the I/S


What items are NEVER considered to be extraordinary?

The following items are NEVER extraordinary:

1. Foreign currency devaluation

2. Effects of a strike

3. Write-downs of assets - Inventory, A/R, PP&E, goodwill & intangibles


What the Other Comprehensive Income items?

The following are Other Comprehensive Income items:

1. Reclassification adjustments

2. Unrealized holding gain/loss of AFS securities

3. Pension or Other Post-retirement Benefit adjustments

4. Unrealized holding gain/loss (effective portion only) on derivatives held as cash flow hedges, including foreign currency hedges as cash flow hedges

5. Cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment (Current Rate Method)

Note: In regards to #2 above, if a company elected the fair value method, then unrealized holding gains/losses of AFS securities would be reported in Other Revenue/Gains in the multi-step I/S. If NOT, these are reported as OCI items AFTER net income

Note: In regards to #4 above, the ineffective portion would be shown in Net Income


With constant dollar accounting, what does it mean to have a Net Monetary asset position?

With constant dollar accounting, if you have a Net Monetary asset position = purchasing power loss

This is because a dollar one year from now will be able to buy less goods than a dollar today due to inflation


With constant dollar accounting, what does it mean to have a Net Monetary liability position?

With constant dollar accounting, if you have a Net Monetary liability position = purchasing power gain

This is because a dollar paid on a liability owed a year from now is worth less than a dollar paid today due to inflation


How do you calculate the conversion factor?

(Constant Dollar Accounting formula)

Current Price CPI
/ Based Year CPI

= Conversion Factor

Note: Multiply the conversion factor by the Nonmonetary Assets to arrive at the amount that should be shown in the supplementary information report