Flashcards in First Aid Deck (48)
What is first degree burn?
- Mildest outer skin layer has redness, increased warmth, tenderness, and mild pain
How do you treat for first degree burn?
Immerse in cold water until pain is gone, flush chemical burns for at least 20min, cover with sterile dressing.
What is a second degree burn?
Extend through outer and inner layers of skin, blisters characterized by severe pains, redness, and warmth
How do you treat a second degree burn?
Same as first degree burn. Don't open any blisters, cover with dry sterile non adhesive dressing. For deep burns follow procedures for third degree burn.
What's a third degree burn?
Penetrates full thickness of skin destroys inner and outer layers; severe pain. Pain may not occur if nerve endings are destroyed. Skin white to black. (Months to heal, scarring & skin grafts)
How do you treat a third degree burn?
Wait until the EMTs arrive.
What is heat cramps?
Painful contractions of muscles caused by depletion of salt from body fluids (excessive sweating)
What is heat exhaustion?
Too much fluid loss from sweating
What is heat stroke?
Failure to sweat; extreme elevation in body temperature
What are the causes of motion sickness?
- Mental and physical stress
- Rolling/pitching movement of the boat
- Reading charts
What are the symptoms for heat cramps and what is the proper treatment?
- Affect muscles & abdominal walls. May be severe pains, body temp may be elevated
- Drink cool fluids ( water sport drinks) avoid 12 hours of heat. No hot packs or salt tablets
What are the symptoms and treatment for heat exhaustion?
- Symptoms are similar to shock, collapses in the heat and sweat constantly. Sweating rules out heat stroke.
- Remove from heat/ cool dry area, patient on back/ legs elevated, administer cool sips of water/ sports drink, treatment for shock, avoid 24hrs of heat, administer oxygen.
What are the symptoms and treatment for heat stroke?
- headache, dizziness, disturbed vision, sudden unconsciousness, hot dry skin, contracted pupils, strong pulse convulsions, body temp: 105-109 degrees.
-loosen clothes, seek medical help, fan victim, lay victim down w/ head/shoulders slightly elevated, immerse body in cool water/ice packs to hot spots, treat for shock.
What is hypothermia?
The condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one that is dangerously low. Survival depends on blood alcohol level, clothes warn, amount of physical exertion.
What are some symptoms of hypothermia?
- Low body temp
- Low blood pressure
- Slow/ weak pulse
- General appearance
- Cold skin
- May simulate or occupy shock
During medical issues what is the crew responsibilities?
- Treat any medical issues properly
- Inform unit commander of situation
- contact watch stander so they can call for emergency medical assistance.
What are the three types of heat related injuries?
- Heat cramps
- Heat exhaustion
- Heat stroke
What are the signs of shock?
- Pale skin
- Dilated pupils
- Weak & rapid pulse ( great than 100 beats per min)
- respiration 16
What are some causes of burns?
- Electric shock
What is the temp for a victim to loose consciousness suffering from hypothermia?
What is the basic treatment for a victim suffering from hypothermia?
- Removal of wet clothes
- Replace w/ dry clothes & blankets
- Keep patient calm and quiet
What happens to victim of body temp falls below 78 degrees?
Heart/ lung failure.
What is air emboli?
Air bubbles I divers blood.
What's the treatment for air emboli?
- EMS & relocate to nearest decompression facility.
- Place diver on left side w/ head down & provide oxygen.
- Treat for shock
What is bends?
- Decompression sickness (1-48hrs to appear)
- Deep pain in muscles/joint
- Choking/ coughing/ chest pain/ blotting of skin.
What are the protective gear/devices a crew member must wear during medical situations?
- Face mask
- Eye protection
What is anaphylactic shock?
A rapid and extreme allergic reaction.
What are some causes of anaphylactic shock?
- Ingesting berries
- Insect stings
- Dust/ pollen
What are some signs of anaphylactic shock?
- Nausea/ vomiting
- Increased pulse rate
- Dilated pupils
- Abdominal cramps