First Chunk: week 1 basics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in First Chunk: week 1 basics Deck (42):
1

how much motion would you expect a fibrous joint to have?

depends on what connective tissue unites them.

2

name three types of fibrous joints, and expected movement

suture (little) syndesmosis (some) gomphosis (some--tooth)

3

name a syndosmosis joint in the body, and the type of ligament used

ulnar/radial, interosseus ligamunt

4

what is the purpose of proprioceptive information from your teeth?

how hard you are chewing

5

Where do you find cartilaginous joints?

at growth plates (hyaline, or sternum) pubic symphosis intervertebral disk

6

difference between a primary and secondary cartilaginous joint?

hyaline unites primary, fibrocartilage unites secondary.

7

a primary cartilaginous joint is a ----, a secondary cartilaginous joint is a----

synchondroses, symphyses

8

what is the purpose of synovial fluid?

nourishes the articular cartilage, lubes the joint surface

9

what is Hilton's law?

nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint, and the skin covering their attatchments

10

where are the nerve endings in a joint?

in the joint capsule

11

where are the arteries and veins that supply the synovial joint located?

in the synovial membrane

12

this type of joint would generally have no motion

a synarthroses

13

this type of joint would generally have limited motion

an amphiarthroses

14

this type of joint would generally have a lot of motion

diarthroses

15

which two types of joints don't have a joint capsule?

cartilaginous joints and fibrous joints

16

synovial joints are often reinforced by ligaments, why

they have a greater range of motion-- need more stability

17

where do these ligaments on synovial joints come from?

often thickened parts of the capsule

18

what is the periosteum?

connective tissue surrounding the bone, blends into the fibrous joint capsule

19

what is the function of articular cartilage?

reduces friction and protects the underlying bone

20

is there blood within the synovial joint?

no, it is filtered into synovial fluid

21

two functions of the miniscus of the knee?

distributes forces, and helps with joint congruency

22

what is the function of nerves in the articular capsule?

monitor capsular stretch, so pain and proprioception

23

two reasons why risk of ankle sprin is increased after a previous sprain

biomechanical (increased laxity) neuromotor (reduced proprioception

24

is the extensive blood supply to the joint for the cartilage?

no, mainly for the synovial fluid

25

what type of movement does a plane joint allow?

short gliding movements on a flat articular surface

26

how is gliding used?

as an accessory movement, lots of joints making little movements

27

what must you have with plane joints?

lots of supporting ligaments

28

describe a hinge joint

cylinder and trough, movement in one plane

29

what structural support comes with a hinge joint?

weak AP ligaments and strong lateral, or vice/versa.

30

how does the pivot joint differ from the hinge?

rotates about its long axis

31

how is the pivot joint similar to the hinge?

one bone has rotation relative to another that is fixed

32

in what way does a condyloid joint differ from a ball and socket joint?

only biaxial (back and forth, side to side), more restrictive

33

some joints have a shape that adds to their stability. example?

hip, elbow

34

three factors that can add to the stability of a joint

muscle tone, joint shape, ligaments

35

three structures that reduce friction in a synovial joint?

sheath, bursa, fat pad

36

two structures in a synovial joint that improve congruence?

articular disc, labrum

37

what is a labrum

lenthens the fossa on the articular surface, increasing concavity

38

how do the osteokinematics of knee flexion differer from the arthrokinematics?

flexon/extension, roll and glide

39

open chain movement is?

proximal portion is fixed

40

when the origin is moving towards the insertion, it is typically this type of movement

closed chain

41

what is a reverse contraction?

if the distal end is fixed, and the origin is moving towards the insertion

42

if you bend forward slowly, what kind of contraction do your back muscles make?

eccentric