Flashcards in First Chunk: week 1 basics Deck (42):
how much motion would you expect a fibrous joint to have?
depends on what connective tissue unites them.
name three types of fibrous joints, and expected movement
suture (little) syndesmosis (some) gomphosis (some--tooth)
name a syndosmosis joint in the body, and the type of ligament used
ulnar/radial, interosseus ligamunt
what is the purpose of proprioceptive information from your teeth?
how hard you are chewing
Where do you find cartilaginous joints?
at growth plates (hyaline, or sternum) pubic symphosis intervertebral disk
difference between a primary and secondary cartilaginous joint?
hyaline unites primary, fibrocartilage unites secondary.
a primary cartilaginous joint is a ----, a secondary cartilaginous joint is a----
what is the purpose of synovial fluid?
nourishes the articular cartilage, lubes the joint surface
what is Hilton's law?
nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint, and the skin covering their attatchments
where are the nerve endings in a joint?
in the joint capsule
where are the arteries and veins that supply the synovial joint located?
in the synovial membrane
this type of joint would generally have no motion
this type of joint would generally have limited motion
this type of joint would generally have a lot of motion
which two types of joints don't have a joint capsule?
cartilaginous joints and fibrous joints
synovial joints are often reinforced by ligaments, why
they have a greater range of motion-- need more stability
where do these ligaments on synovial joints come from?
often thickened parts of the capsule
what is the periosteum?
connective tissue surrounding the bone, blends into the fibrous joint capsule
what is the function of articular cartilage?
reduces friction and protects the underlying bone
is there blood within the synovial joint?
no, it is filtered into synovial fluid
two functions of the miniscus of the knee?
distributes forces, and helps with joint congruency
what is the function of nerves in the articular capsule?
monitor capsular stretch, so pain and proprioception
two reasons why risk of ankle sprin is increased after a previous sprain
biomechanical (increased laxity) neuromotor (reduced proprioception
is the extensive blood supply to the joint for the cartilage?
no, mainly for the synovial fluid
what type of movement does a plane joint allow?
short gliding movements on a flat articular surface
how is gliding used?
as an accessory movement, lots of joints making little movements
what must you have with plane joints?
lots of supporting ligaments
describe a hinge joint
cylinder and trough, movement in one plane
what structural support comes with a hinge joint?
weak AP ligaments and strong lateral, or vice/versa.
how does the pivot joint differ from the hinge?
rotates about its long axis
how is the pivot joint similar to the hinge?
one bone has rotation relative to another that is fixed
in what way does a condyloid joint differ from a ball and socket joint?
only biaxial (back and forth, side to side), more restrictive
some joints have a shape that adds to their stability. example?
three factors that can add to the stability of a joint
muscle tone, joint shape, ligaments
three structures that reduce friction in a synovial joint?
sheath, bursa, fat pad
two structures in a synovial joint that improve congruence?
articular disc, labrum
what is a labrum
lenthens the fossa on the articular surface, increasing concavity
how do the osteokinematics of knee flexion differer from the arthrokinematics?
flexon/extension, roll and glide
open chain movement is?
proximal portion is fixed
when the origin is moving towards the insertion, it is typically this type of movement
what is a reverse contraction?
if the distal end is fixed, and the origin is moving towards the insertion