Flashcards in First partial Deck (23):
What is a political issue?
Any question that deals with how power is distributed and how it operates within social organization, and how people think about, and engage in, their communities and the wider world on matters that affect their lives
What is power?
The ability to make others do what they would otherwise not do
What is politics?
Social science which studies the way corporations, media, citizens, politicians & ideologies interact in the national & global political arenas
Which are the three core assumptions of realism?
-Sovereign states are the only actors that matter
-States are unitary and rational
-The international system is anarchic
What is sovereignty?
A state's independent control over its territory & its ability to govern itself
Which are the four theories of realism?
-Rise & fall realism
What does classical realism argue?
The will to dominate & the desire for more power are rotted in the flawed nature of humanity.
States are the reflection of the people within the state
What does structural realism argue?
The quest for power isn't related to human nature, but the international system.
All states are functionally alike, with different capabilities
What does neoclassical realism argue?
Combines classical and structural realism.
Recognizes systemic forces & looks at domestic factors; states often underbalance
What does rise & fall realism argue?
The rules and practices of the international system are determined by the wishes of the leading state.
More stability when there is one, big, powerful leader
Which are the two types of structural realism?
Offensive & defensive
What does defensive structural realism state?
The pursuit of hegemony is foolish.
If a state becomes too powerful, it needs balance.
What does offensive structural realism state?
It is rational to pursue hegemony.
Balancing is inefficient
What is cooperation?
When actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others
Which are the four liberal areas of critique against realism?
-States are not unitary
-States are not rational
-Gains are relative
-Military forces are the core of international politics
Which are some of the ideals for liberalism?
-Domestic affairs do matter
-Foreign policy is not automatic and depends on internal battles
-Security isn't always the top priority
-International organizations and law are important
-States should cooperate with each other, for benefit (positive-sum game)
-Bilateral or multilateral negotiations
What does Kantian liberalism state?
-A state is not a piece of property - society of men
-Armies should be abolished - competition
-No state should interfere with other state
What are the definitive articles for Kantian liberalism?
1. The civil constitution of every state should be republican
2. The law of nations shall be founded on a federation of free states
3. The Law of World citizenship shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality
What does commercial liberalism state?
-Trade among states promotes tolerance and cordial relations - leads to peace
-Solution: limit the power of government to impose trade restraints
What does the democratic peace theory state?
Democracies do not engage in conflict with other democracies
What does neoliberal institutionalism state?
-Evidence of tit-for-tat: do something for me today, I'll do something for you tomorrow
-States are the key but not the only factors
-States are rational
-Economic gains are a fundamental concern
What is hegemony?
Leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others.