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Flashcards in Fitness Components Deck (28):
1

Aerobic capacity

The fitness of the heart, blood vessels and lungs to deliver energy for the maximum time and individual can sustain aerobic effort.

2

Aerobic power

The ability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels to produce energy during a defined period of sustained sub-maximal effort

3

Examples of aerobic capacity and how can it be improved by

- Marathons, triathlons, tennis, playing midfield AFL
- continuos training, fartlek training and interval training

4

Factors influencing aerobic capacity

VO2 max, lactate inflection point, age, sex, body size, heredity, muscle fibre type.

5

Anaerobic capacity

The ability to produce energy quickly for as long as anaerobic effort can be sustained.

6

Anaerobic power

The ability to produce energy for a defined period of activity (sprint, throw, jump, strike)

7

How can anaerobic capacity be improved and what factors affect this?

- Short/Intermediate interval training, plyometric training, resistance training, circuit training
- Tolerance of waste products, speed of nerve implies transmission

8

Muscular strength

Ability of body to produce a force to overcome a resistance

9

One rep max

Amount of force that a muscle or group muscles can exert against resistance in a single maximal contraction

10

How can muscular strength be improved and factors that effect this?

-Weight/resistance training, circuit training
- Cross sectional are of muscle, speed of muscular contraction, muscle fibre type

11

4 types of contractions?

Isometric - when muscle length is constant as a force is developed
Eccentric - Muscle lengthens when force is developed
Concentric - Muscle shortens when force is developed
Isokinetic - when the tension developed in muscle is maximal throughout the whole range of motion. Velocity of eccentric and concentric contraction is constant

12

Types of muscle fibres

- Slow twitch (type 1): low intensity, endurance type acrivities. Very dense capillary network (lots of blood flow). (GOOD FOR AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS). Red muscle
- Type 2A Fast Twitch: medium intensity and capillary density. (Red muscle
All characteristics of anaerobic Glycolysis
Type 2B - all characteristics of ATP CP
Predominant colour is white,

13

After puberty boys have higher absolute strength than girls cos of effects of testosterone and have higher muscle mass cross-sectional area. Strength decrease by 8% per decade due to decreased muscle mass, loss of contractile properties and reduced activation of motor units.

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14

Muscular endurance

Total body endurance where most major muscle groups in body are required to carry out a sustained performance. Local muscular fatigue is the same thing but applies to a muscle group

15

Contraction of muscles create pressure that causes surrounding blood vessels to become blocked

Limits amount of oxygen that is provided for working muscles resulting in fatigue

16

Examples of muscular endurance and how can it be improved by and factors

- paddling a canoe, sit ups, 400m freestyle, cycling
- continuous training, Swiss ball training, core strength training, weight/resistance training, circuit training
- tolerance to waste products

17

Flexibility

The range of movement associated with specific joint systems
- capacity if a joint to move through its full range of motion
- reflects the ability of the muscles and connective tissues to stretch
- specific to the joint; good flexibility in one joint does not necessarily mean good flexibility in other joints

18

Static and dynamic flexibility?

Static - joints range of motion under stationary conditions
Dynamic- resistance to motion in a joint

19

Factors of flexibility?

@Joint structure:
- hinge, ball and socket, gliding and saddle
@Soft tissue membrane:
-muscles, tendons (muscle to bone), ligaments (bone to bone), slim, connective intramuscular tissue (maintains joint stability and restricts excessive joint movements)
@Muscle /body temperature:
- higher muscle and body temperature increases elasticity and reduces stiffness
@age
- flexibility peaks around mid 20/s as connective tissue growth catches up to bone length
@gender
- females are more flexible how ever males can be more flexible in specific joints

20

Body composition definition and mount in male and female

The percentage of fat, bone and muscle in the body
Males : 5-18%
Females: 12-25%

21

Speed

Where a performer moves as quickly as possible from point A to B. Can refer to whole body or to a body part. This can be improved by plyometric training

22

Muscular power

Combination of strength and speed to create an explosive effort. Trying to get a powerful movement while getting a strength movement . Improved by plyometric training

23

Agility

Combines speed with flexibility and dynamic balance allowing the athlete to change direction with maximal speed and control. It is important in quickly moving to dodge a player or ball

24

Reactive and planned agility?

Reactive -When a movement is unpredicted like avoiding a player in a game
Planned - When changes in movement are planned, like in dancing or gymnastics

25

Co-ordination

The ability to link a series of muscular movements so they appear to be well controlled and efficiently executed. Required in sports where brains and activated muscles work together.

26

Balance

The body's ability to effectively control the desired performance movements

27

Dynamic and static balance?

Dynamic - Involves keeping the body's balance under control while moving
Static balance - involves keeping the body's balance under control while not moving

28

Reaction time

The speed which an individual can react to outside stimulus. The ability of the brain to react with various outside input sources, process them, select a response and activate the expected muscular response