Flashcards in Fitness Components Deck (28):
The fitness of the heart, blood vessels and lungs to deliver energy for the maximum time and individual can sustain aerobic effort.
The ability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels to produce energy during a defined period of sustained sub-maximal effort
Examples of aerobic capacity and how can it be improved by
- Marathons, triathlons, tennis, playing midfield AFL
- continuos training, fartlek training and interval training
Factors influencing aerobic capacity
VO2 max, lactate inflection point, age, sex, body size, heredity, muscle fibre type.
The ability to produce energy quickly for as long as anaerobic effort can be sustained.
The ability to produce energy for a defined period of activity (sprint, throw, jump, strike)
How can anaerobic capacity be improved and what factors affect this?
- Short/Intermediate interval training, plyometric training, resistance training, circuit training
- Tolerance of waste products, speed of nerve implies transmission
Ability of body to produce a force to overcome a resistance
One rep max
Amount of force that a muscle or group muscles can exert against resistance in a single maximal contraction
How can muscular strength be improved and factors that effect this?
-Weight/resistance training, circuit training
- Cross sectional are of muscle, speed of muscular contraction, muscle fibre type
4 types of contractions?
Isometric - when muscle length is constant as a force is developed
Eccentric - Muscle lengthens when force is developed
Concentric - Muscle shortens when force is developed
Isokinetic - when the tension developed in muscle is maximal throughout the whole range of motion. Velocity of eccentric and concentric contraction is constant
Types of muscle fibres
- Slow twitch (type 1): low intensity, endurance type acrivities. Very dense capillary network (lots of blood flow). (GOOD FOR AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS). Red muscle
- Type 2A Fast Twitch: medium intensity and capillary density. (Red muscle
All characteristics of anaerobic Glycolysis
Type 2B - all characteristics of ATP CP
Predominant colour is white,
After puberty boys have higher absolute strength than girls cos of effects of testosterone and have higher muscle mass cross-sectional area. Strength decrease by 8% per decade due to decreased muscle mass, loss of contractile properties and reduced activation of motor units.
Total body endurance where most major muscle groups in body are required to carry out a sustained performance. Local muscular fatigue is the same thing but applies to a muscle group
Contraction of muscles create pressure that causes surrounding blood vessels to become blocked
Limits amount of oxygen that is provided for working muscles resulting in fatigue
Examples of muscular endurance and how can it be improved by and factors
- paddling a canoe, sit ups, 400m freestyle, cycling
- continuous training, Swiss ball training, core strength training, weight/resistance training, circuit training
- tolerance to waste products
The range of movement associated with specific joint systems
- capacity if a joint to move through its full range of motion
- reflects the ability of the muscles and connective tissues to stretch
- specific to the joint; good flexibility in one joint does not necessarily mean good flexibility in other joints
Static and dynamic flexibility?
Static - joints range of motion under stationary conditions
Dynamic- resistance to motion in a joint
Factors of flexibility?
- hinge, ball and socket, gliding and saddle
@Soft tissue membrane:
-muscles, tendons (muscle to bone), ligaments (bone to bone), slim, connective intramuscular tissue (maintains joint stability and restricts excessive joint movements)
@Muscle /body temperature:
- higher muscle and body temperature increases elasticity and reduces stiffness
- flexibility peaks around mid 20/s as connective tissue growth catches up to bone length
- females are more flexible how ever males can be more flexible in specific joints
Body composition definition and mount in male and female
The percentage of fat, bone and muscle in the body
Males : 5-18%
Where a performer moves as quickly as possible from point A to B. Can refer to whole body or to a body part. This can be improved by plyometric training
Combination of strength and speed to create an explosive effort. Trying to get a powerful movement while getting a strength movement . Improved by plyometric training
Combines speed with flexibility and dynamic balance allowing the athlete to change direction with maximal speed and control. It is important in quickly moving to dodge a player or ball
Reactive and planned agility?
Reactive -When a movement is unpredicted like avoiding a player in a game
Planned - When changes in movement are planned, like in dancing or gymnastics
The ability to link a series of muscular movements so they appear to be well controlled and efficiently executed. Required in sports where brains and activated muscles work together.
The body's ability to effectively control the desired performance movements
Dynamic and static balance?
Dynamic - Involves keeping the body's balance under control while moving
Static balance - involves keeping the body's balance under control while not moving