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Flashcards in Fitness/Nutrition Terms Deck (53):

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that’s found in all cells of the body.
Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs. However, cholesterol also is found in some of the foods you eat. Cholesterol travels through your bloodstream in small packages called lipoproteins (lip-o-PRO-teens). These packages are made of fat (lipid) on the inside and proteins on the outside.



is the bad one. LDL collects in the walls of blood vessels,
causing the blockages of atherosclerosis. Higher LDL levels put you at greater risk for a heart attack from a sudden blood clot in an artery narrowed by atherosclerosis.

LDL (bad) cholesterol


(good) cholesterol-HDL cholesterol is the
well-behaved "good cholesterol." This friendly scavenger cruises the bloodstream. As it does, it removes harmful bad cholesterol from where it doesn't belong. High HDL levels reduce the risk for heart disease -- but low levels increase the risk.

High Density Lipoprotein, HDL


are a type of fat (lipid) found in your blood. When you eat, your body
converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into triglycerides. The triglycerides are stored in your fat cells.



is short-lasting, high-intensity activity, where your body's demand
for oxygen exceeds the oxygen supply available. Anaerobic exercise relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles

Anaerobic exercise


provides cardiovascular conditioning. The term aerobic actually
means "with oxygen," which means that breathing controls the amount of oxygen that can make it to the muscles to help them burn fuel and move.

Aerobic exercise


Exercise performed using a specialized apparatus that provides
variable resistance to a movement, so that no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed.

Isokinetic exercise


or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle
and muscle length do not change during contraction

Isometric exercise


when a contracting muscle shortens against a constant load, as
when lifting a weight. Isotonic exercise is one method of muscular exercise.

Isotonic exercise


is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue.

Muscle atrophy


involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in
size of its component cells.

Muscle hypertrophy


disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which you
can't stop thinking about a flaw in your appearance — a flaw that is either minor or
imagined. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful that you don't want to be
seen by anyone.

Body dysmorphic disorder


self-starvation originating from a fear of becoming overweight.

Anorexia nervosa


bingeing on food and then purging it as a way to control body weight.

Bulimia nervosa


Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which
you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food and feel unable to stop eating.

Excessive eating disorder


(uh-men-o-REE-uh) is the absence of menstruation — one or more
missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in
a row have amenorrhea,



includes, bone, organs, muscle, and other tissue.

Body composition


(BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of
height in meters. A high BMI can be an indicator of high body fatness.

Body mass index


Bioelectrical impedance measures the resistance of body
tissues to the flow of a small, harmless electrical signal. Current flows more easily
through the parts of the body that are composed mostly of water (blood, urine and
muscle) than it does through bone, fat or air. Bioelectrical impedance measures the
strength and speed of the electrical signal sent through the body (impedance measure).
It then uses this measurement and information such as height, weight and gender to
predict how much body fat a person has.

Bioelectrical impedance


skinfold estimation methods are based on a skinfold test, also
known as a pinch test, whereby a pinch of skin is precisely measured by calipers at
several standardized points on the body to determine the subcutaneous fat layer

Skinfold caliper testing


Underwater weighing: A method for determining the lean body
mass. This method weighs a person underwater and then calculates the lean body mass
(muscle) and body fat. This method is one of the more accurate ones. However, it is
generally done in special research facilities, and the equipment is costly.

Hydrostatic weighing


Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart
and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and
removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them.

Cardiovascular system


The antagonist muscle opposes the agonist muscle during an
exercise. For example, during the lifting phase of a biceps curl, the triceps muscles
lengthen as the biceps contract, making the biceps the agonist and the triceps the

Antagonist muscle


The term agonist refers to the muscle that is primarily responsible for a
specific joint motion, or the muscle that is directly involved in a contraction. For example,
during the lifting phase of a biceps curl, the agonists are the bicep muscles.

Agonist muscle


fast-twitch muscles fatigue faster but are used in powerful
bursts of movements like sprinting.

Fast twitch muscle fiber


help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running.

Slow twitch muscle fiber


A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of
medium-sized and large arteries as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining. Risk
factors for atherosclerosis include high levels of "bad" cholesterol, high blood pressure
(hypertension), smoking, diabetes and a genetic family history of atherosclerotic disease.



or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the arteries
when the heart rests between beats. A normal diastolic blood pressure number is less
than 80. A diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 indicates prehypertension. A diastolic blood pressure number of 90 or higher is considered to be hypertension or high blood pressure.

Diastolic blood pressure


When your heart beats, it contracts and pushes blood through
the arteries to the rest of the body. This force creates pressure on the arteries. This is called systolic blood pressure. A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120. A systolic blood pressure of 120 to 139 means you have prehypertension, or borderline high blood pressure.

Systolic blood pressure


or high blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term
force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.



any one of various substances found in certain foods (such as bread,
rice, and potatoes) that provide your body with heat and energy and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.



are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols,
fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.



From a chemical standpoint, saturated fats are simply fat molecules that
have no double bonds between carbon molecules because they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature.

Saturated fat


Oils that contain monounsaturated fats are typically
liquid at room temperature but start to turn solid when chilled. Olive oil is an example of a type of oil that contains monounsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fat is mainly in vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, sunflower and soybean oils. It's usually liquid at room temperature. It is also found in seeds and fish. Better for your arteries and heart.

Poly and mono unsaturated fats


Artificial trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial
process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. The primary dietary source for trans fats in processed food is “partially hydrogenated oils." Look for them on the ingredient list on food packages.

Trans-fatty acids


are the building blocks of life. Every cell in the human body contains protein.
The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women. Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. Amino acids are found in animal sources such as meats, milk, fish, and eggs. They are also found in plant sources such as soy, beans, legumes, nut butters, and some grains (such as wheat germ and quinoa). You do not need to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet.



or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has
two main components: Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous.

Dietary fiber


is approximately the amount of energy needed to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. It can also be considered a
measure of the energy in the food we eat, or the amount of energy we expend while living, moving, and exercising, etc.

Calorie (kilocalorie)


is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into
energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.



the amount of energy (calories) your body burns while you are

Basal metabolism


are components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow.
Macronutrients provide the bulk energy an organism's metabolic system needs to
function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be
carried out.



Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally.
There are 13 vitamins your body needs. They are: B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin,
niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate)Vitamin A, Vitamin
D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, and C.



Like vitamins, minerals are substances found in food that your body needs for
growth and health. There are two kinds of minerals: macro minerals and trace minerals.
Macro minerals are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Your body needs just small
amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, copper, iodine, zinc, fluoride, and



Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle —Bone is living
tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the
creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone.



are among the brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which function
to transmit electrical signals within the nervous system. Stress and pain are the two most
common factors leading to the release of endorphins. Endorphins interact with the opiate
receptors in the brain to reduce our perception of pain and act similarly to drugs such as
morphine and codeine.



a person who does not eat meat, and sometimes other animal products,
especially for moral, religious, or health reasons.



a person who does not eat or use animal products



a person that gets little or no physical activity.



the condition of having an abnormally low body temperature, typically one
that is dangerously low.



the condition of having a body temperature greatly above normal.



a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.



The body breaks down most carbohydrates from the foods we eat and
converts them to a type of sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for
our cells.



a colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sour milk and produced in the
muscle tissues during strenuous exercise.

Lactic acid