FL #5 Bio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FL #5 Bio Deck (48):
1

bones are built by

osteoblasts ("blasts build!")

2

bone tends to degrade in areas of

low stress

3

lipid breakdown yields

9 kcal/g

4

carbohydrates & protein breakdown yields

4 kcal/g

5

ethanol breakdown yields

7 kcal/g

6

fat breakdown yields

11 kcal/g (the most out of any fuel source in mammals)

7

autosomal recessive =

1:1 male/female ratio

8

autosomal dominant =

no generation skipping

9

Y-linked dominant =

must be passed form father

10

X-linked recessive =

can be passed from affected/unaffected mother or affected father

11

primary motor protein in muscle cells

myosin

12

myosin also

hydrolyzes ATP

13

troponin =

chaperone of actin

14

myosin motors on

actin

15

dystrophin =

linkage protein that transduces force from actin units w/in the sarcomere to the cell membrane

16

dystrophin is linked to

extracell carbs & Z bands of sarcomeres

17

dystrophin is not directly involved in

muscle contraction

18

dystrophin is only expressed in

skeletal muscle cells

19

carbs are found on cell membrane of which cells

all of them

20

smooth muscle cell anchorage =

long filaments are anchored to cell membrane at dense plaques (not by dystrophin proteins)

21

neurotransmitter involed in muscle contraction

acetylcholine

22

where do neurotransmitters bind to their receptors?

at the neuromuscular junction

23

t-tubules function

transmit neuro currents to skeletal muscle cells

24

in a reaction, enzymes

lower activation energy

25

can enzymes alter equilibrium?

no

26

heteroplasmy =

variation in organelle genetic composition in the cell (bc of self-replication/division of mitochondria)

27

nondisjunction =

incorrect separation of nuclear chromosomes

28

what would happen if mitochondria produced non-functional tRNA for lysine?

it would not work properly or produce proteins

29

prions = no

nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)

30

peripheral nervous system controls

things we don't consciously think about controlling

31

what is likely to be found in a virus?
what is least likely?

likely = DNA, RNA, protein
not likely = lipids

32

what would likely limit the rate of electron flow through the ETC?

formation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane

33

promoters are found in

prokaryotes & eukaryotes

34

promoters in eukaryotes are

not constitutively active

35

all catabolic processes in cells are based on

monosaccharides

36

blastula =

hollow ball of cells

37

oocytes =

unfertilized eggs

38

morula =

solid ball of cells

39

zygote =

newly fertilized egg

40

induction is a function of

cell signaling

41

cytoplasmic components of a zygote origin

maternal

42

mitochondria are heavy consumers of

glucose

43

nucleolus function

synthesize ribosomes, rRNA

44

nucleolus is made up of

RNA & protein

45

connective tissue produces

an elastic matrix

46

contractile & excitable are features of

muscle tissue & some neural tissue

47

golgi apparatus function

vesicle formation

48

ER function

production of lipids (smooth) & proteins (rough)