Intentional or reckless conduct that is extreme or outrageous, that causes P to suffer emotional emotional distress,
In Florida, no physical symptoms of manifestation are needed.
NIED- Physical Impact Rule
Requires physical impact - Zone of Danger
Bystandard - D's negligence caused P to suffer emotional distress, where P's close relative was Injured by D and was witnessed by P.
Psycotherapist Exception - P alleges psycotherapist breach fiduciary relationship
Attorney- client : special relationship + foreseeable emotional harm from wrongful incarceration.
reasonable suspicion of theft,
- detention in reasonable manner and period of time
- only for purpose of making investigation.
- Must show stolen property can be recovered by taking offender into custody
Good Samaritan Laws
Limits the liability of a rescuer from ordinary negligence. Cannot be reckless conduct
1) Invited Licensee
2) Unsolicited Licensee (Firefighter)
3) Known Tresspassers
4) Unkown tresppasser
1) warn of nonobvious dangerous conditions + make reasonable inspection to discover dangerous conditions and make safe.
2) warn of hidden dangers
3) warn and refrain from negligent or improper conduct
4) refrain from negligent or improper conduct
Transitory Foreign Objects (bananna peel on floor)
P must show business- D had actual or constructive [length of time/reoccurrence] knowledge of dangerous condition.
If lessor surrenders posession and control of premises, he will not be liable for injuries to 3rd Party that occur on premises.
liable if not given lesee access to safe property,
does not repair a defect w/in a reasonable time
if lessee's dog attacks
LL Liability: Felony on Premises
LO will not be liable for negligence resulting in death, injury, or damage to a person who is attempting to commit a felony on the premises.
FL Medical Consent Law
Florida Medical Consent Law – protects medical professionals from liability if, within scope of consent standard Dr:
- obtains written consent from patient
- rsnbl patient would’ve understood treatment, alternatives, and risk; or
- patient would’ve reasonably chosen treatment if adequately advised of risks
FL Medical Malpractice Claim
- obtain affidavit from medical expert showing verifiable grounds for claim --
- serve notice on D by certified mail at least 90 days before filing suit----including: list of healthcare providers P saw regarding injury, all providers treated D w/in 2 years of injury, and copies of medical records relied on by expert who signed affidavit.
- w/in 90 days insurer must deliver answer (during period SoL tolled to all potential Ds)
Landlord owes a duty to child tresspasser to make the property reasonably safe and warn of any hidden dangers
- Dangerous artificial condition on land
- children are known to frequest the area
- dangerous condition allures children on property
- children won't appreciate the danger or are unlikly to discover the danger
- risk of harm is greater than the cost to make the premises safe
Neg Per Se
1) Statute must impose an affirmative duty to take certain action and impose a penalty for failure to do so.; AND
2) P is in the class of persons the statute seeks to
Res Ipsa loquiter
P may rely on the presumption of negligence regardless of knowledge for who cause the injury of who had control during the injury.
Plaintiff must show that:
1) the injury is of a kind that typically does not occur in the absence of negligence;
2) other responsible causes are sufficientlyeliminated by the evidence (including the conduct of P and third persons); AND
3) the negligence was within the scope of duty D owed to P
Causation- Substantial Factor
in Florida The substantial factor test is used when there are concurrent causes, any one of which acting alone would have caused Ps injury
Market Share Liability
P can use in negligence action if:
P cannot identify specific manufacturer; and all manufacturers have same risk of harm
P must prove by clear and convincing evidence that D acted intentionally or with willful, wanton, or gross misconduct.
Cannot be given if already rewarded.
Recovery Cap: greater of 3x compensatory award or $500,000
---D acted w/ specific intent OR D alcohol/drug impaired → no cap
---D acted w/ unreasonable financial gain → greater of 4x comp. award or $2mm
---Child/elderly/incompetent abuse → may exceed 3x IF P shows clear and convincing evidence award isn’t excessive.
Collateral Source Rule
Damages will be reduced by payments from disability payments, social security, income disability insurance, healthcare K's
Economic Loss Rule
ELR limitation applies to products liability, but does not bar:
--(1) statutory causes of action;
--(2) tort actions arising from a K; or
--(3) independent torts
A public nuisance is “any building or place which tends to annoy the community or injure the health of the community.”
--amusement: a place of amusement is not nuisance per se, but maybe a public nuisance if it unreasonably annoys the community.
--AG/state attorney or citizen of the county affected may sue in the name of the state to enjoin a public nuisance.
Individual suing for public nuisance must show special damages to that of the community at large
Defamation by Implication – true statements can be defamatory where they create a false impression.
FL: Personal representative can sue on behalf of dead person if defamatory statement occurred during Dead person's life
If person has priviledge must defeat by a perponderance of the evidence that the statement was made with malice - purpose was to injure
Dangerous instrumalities doctrine
owner of instrumentality capable of causing death is liable for its misuse by TP if had owners knowledge and consents to tp use
liability to owner where
1. Supplier of Chattle who gives 3rd party chattle to use,
2. foreseeable 3rd party is likly to use chattle in a manner involving unreasonable risk of physical harm to user
Wrongful death & Survival actions