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1

According to solution-focused therapy, and constructionist learning theory, languages creates

Reality

2

_____ help clients widen their lens to view more possible choices of action

Therapist

3

A Bowenian therapist assumes the role of

an active coach and advisor

4

According to hierarchical structure structural therapy, children and adult differ in how much ___ they have

Authority

5

According to Winnicott, an extreme split between the true self and false self results in ___

Dysfunction

6

Stage two in the psychosexual development of a child by which the focus is on learning independence, personal power and autonomy. During this stage is when the child begins to experience negative feelings

Anal Stage

7

When an organism responds to a threat that is either real or imagined. Equivalent to increased reactivity within a system. Increased anxiety can result from increased reactivity.

Anxiety

8

Emotional tie formed between people, especially between a child and the primary caregiver- an infant who is attached to a caregiver exhibits distress when separated from the caregiver.

Attachment

9

Personalized perceptions that are automatically triggered by an event or experience resulting in an emotional response.

Automatic thoughts

10

He was one of the most well known psychologists in behaviorism. he invented the "Skinner Box" to demonstrate his theory of Operant Conditioning.

B.F. Skinner

11

The functioning that is not reliant on the emotional driven relationship process resulting in a person's emotional separation from his/her family of origin

basic level of differentiation

12

A method or theory of learning that is focused on the stimulus and responses of behavior.

Behaviorism

13

A technique often utilized in feminist therapy in which the therapist provides reading material to the clients as a supplement to the sessions. The goal is for the clients to build upon their own expertise and to diffuse the power difference between the client and therapist.

Bibliotherapy

14

In Bowen terms. the boundary between self and others --family system -- determines the level of fusion and differentiation

Boundaries

15

Thinking about a situation with a focus on the worst possible outcomes

Catastrophizing

16

Events and behaviors are interconnected through repeating and interacting feedback loops and cycles- in a family system, the behavior of each family member affects and is affected by the behavior of other family members

Circular causality

17

Events have reciprocal effects on each other - they are related through interrelated loops- as opposed to linearity

Circularity

18

Used in Milan Model-circular questions are seen as a major source of information, suggestion and validation etc. It is a fundamental concept in that it is used to devise questioning and transform linear, casual chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent world views

Circular questioning

19

A method of learning by pairing a neutral--conditioned-- stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus which then that induces a reflex or response. Eventually the neutral--conditioned--stimulus evokes the reflex or response whether the unconditional stimulus is present or not.

Classical conditioning

20

This type of system is not open to exchange of information or material with other systems, including the environment-ultimately, the system is depleted of energy and progresses towards entropy

Closed system

21

Alliances between two people against a third, In a family system these unions are typically cross-generational. For example, a parent and child consistently side against the other parent or a child and grandparent operate against a parent

Coalitions

22

The theory that moods, behaviors and emotions are effected and shaped by one's perception of the event

Cognitive theory

23

A goal or value that provides a feeling of belonging and unity. In group therapy, beginning to build cohesion is the task of the first group session- An example of group cohesion is trust of others in the group. In families, family cohesion involves emotional connectedness among family members

Cohesion

24

The response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus resulting from pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, thus classical conditioning

Conditioned response

25

A neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning

Conditioned stimulus

26

Constancy loop or morphostatic loop are alternative names for a ___ feedback loop

Negative

27

____ feedback loops help maintain homeostasis in a system

Negative

28

Developed by Ivan Boszmormenyi-Nagy- a system of family therapy focused on relational ethics-includes construct of 'indirect loyalties'

Contextual Therapy

29

The unconscious responses of the therapist to the client's transference

Countertransference

30

The study of the flow of information within self-regulating systems especially closed systems- includes study of positive and negative feedback loops- has been applied to family systems

Cybernetics