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Dermatology > Flea Allergy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Flea Allergy Deck (31):
1

What is the most common skin condition of dogs and cats?

flea allergy dermatitis 

2

What is the most common flea species parasitizing cats AND dogs?

What two other species can parasitize companion animals?

Are they host specific?

Ctenocephalides felis 

Pulex irritans (human flea) and Echidnophagia gallinacea (the avian “sticktight” flea) can also infest these companion animals. Ctenocephalides canis is uncommon.

Not host specific 

3

What pathogens can C. felis harbor?

Yersinia pestis (plague)

murine typhus and tularemia

Dipylidium caninum

Rickettsia felis (rickettsiosis)

Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease).

4

What is the most common location to find avian stick-tight fleas (Echidnophagia gallinacea)?

margin of the pinnae

5

How long is the lifecycle of C. Felis?

21 days (3 weeks)

6

What are the ideal conditions for the survival of fleas?

humid: 65-75%

Temp: 65-80 degrees F

wet 

low altitudes (does not do well >5,000 ft above sea level)

7

Which insecticides are the flea eggs susceptible to?

Instant growth regulators:

methoprene (just after laying)

pyriproxyfen for several hours

8

What is the food source for flea larva?

organic debris and blood filled flea feces 

9

What are the flea seasons in FL?

spring and fall (temp 65-80 degrees)

10

What is the most resistant stage of the flea life cycle?

pupa (can be dormant for many months)

11

What causes fleas to emerge from their cocoon?

What is the first thing a young flea that has just emerged from its cocoon need to do?

mechanical pressure/vibration, body temp., low concentrations of CO2

blood meal

12

Describe the lifecycle of the flea?

A image thumb
13

What are the predisposing factors for an animal to develop a flea allergy?

  • lack of exposure neonatally or at a young age
  • intermittent exposure 
  • small amounts
  • atopy 

14

What are the possible phases of immune response to fleas?

1. Delayed hypersensitivity (Type IV) (24, 48 hours)

2. Combined delayed and immediate phase

3. Immediate hypersensitivity (Most FAD patients) (Type I; IgE)

4. Anergy or spontaneous desensitization (Non-allergic Animals) (tolerance)

also, Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity

15

What is the primary lesion of FAD?

papule 

16

What is age and breed predisposition for FAD?

no breed 

age 1-5 yrs (as early as 2 mo in FL)

17

T/F FAD is among the three most pruritic dz in dogs.

True

18

Where are the lesions most often seen d/t chronic self-trauma with a FAD?

back half of the dog: lower back, perineum, tailhead, hind legs, umbilical region

"racing stripe dermatitis"

"waist disease" 

A image thumb
19

If a patient comes in with intense itching but you cannot find any fleas, can you r/o FAD?

NO (only takes a couple of fleas to cause itching)

20

What secondary infection is common with FAD?

staph folliculitis  

21

With a FAD, are signs constant?

no they wax and wane

seasonal 

worsen from year to year and are variable in severity 

22

What are some behaviors dogs will show with a FAD?

corn cob biting of the paws

rolling

going under tables to scratch the back

23

What are the top three most pruritic skin diseases?

FAD

scabies

food allergy 

24

What are the ways FAD may present in cats?

1. Like the dog

2. tail-head or miliary dermatitis (scabby cat disease)

3. Alopecia w/ no dermatitis (feline symmetric alopecia)

4. associated w/ eosinophilic plaque or granuloma 

25

What are the main DDX for a dog that presents for symptoms characteristic of FAD?

Differential dx dog - atopy, scabies, food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, bacterial folliculitis.

Remember there can be combinations of allergic diseases in an individual animal, and secondary folliculitis is common.

26

What is a parasite that can be tested for that would indicate the presence of fleas?

tape worms (DC)

27

Is histopath useful to DX FAD? What is the result of histo for FAD?

no, non-specific (use to r/o other conditions)

Primarily a superficial perivascular dermatitis with eosinophils

28

What types of diagnostics can be performed to determine FAD?

intradermal skin test (if neg, does not r/o)

animal carriers in the home

clinical signs

flea dirt 

29

What are the key parts of tx for FAD?

flea control

eradicate fleas in the environment 

eliminate fleas on all pets 

Anti-pruritic therapy

Tx pyoderma 

30

Does hyposensitization therapy for FAD work?

currently, no

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