What is the formula for pressure in a fluid column?

height*density*gravity Mass = kg density = rho gravity = 9.81m/s^2

Note that pressure is the same in all directions and is independent of the size of the object on which pressure is being exerted.

t

Explain Bernoulli's' equation

Bernoulli's' equation is about the conversation of energy in fluid flow. It states that as fluid flows into a narrowing pipe the velocity will increase which means that the pressure will decrease. When a fluid flows in an expanding pipe the opposite happens.

What does mu μ symbolise in fluid dynamics

Viscocity

What does V symbolise in fluid dynamics

Relative velocity

Explain viscocity

Viscocity is a measure of a fluids resistance to deformation. The symbol is μ and it is measured in (kg/ms). This is a result of the friction between the different layers.

Explain Stokes law

Stokes law calculates the drag on an object as it travels through a fluid.

F_{D} = 6πRμV

F_{D } = Drag force on the sphere

R= radius of the sphere

μ = viscocity of the fluid

V = relative velocity of the sphere

What is the relationship between viscocity and the reynolds nubmer

Reynolds number = inertia force/ (viscouse force)

Explain terminal velocity in a sphere.

Terminal velocity is the balance between the acceleration of gravity and the countering forces. The primary oppositional force is drag followed by buoyancy.

For a sphere this is

__(Sphere Density-Fluid density)*(Sphere Volume)*(Gravity)__

6πR*fluid viscosity

__((ρ _{s}-ρ_{f})*(4/3πR^{3})*(9.81))__

(6πR_{s}μ)

Explain Pouseuille's equation for pressure drop in a

Note this applies for laminar flow of viscous fluid in a straight pipe only

Pressure drop = __32*viscocity*length*average velocity__

Diameter^{2}

ΔP = (32*μL)*V(Bar)/D^{2}

Explain the fanning friction factor

This is a dimensionless number that relates to the fluid flow in a pipe.

In a round pipe it is taken to be 16/Reynolds number.

This can also be calculated as 16μ/ρVD

What is the hydrolic dyameter

It is a metric for creating an equivalent round diameter pipes for non round pipes. It is calculated from 4A/P

P is wetted perimeter.

Explain the velocity pressure equation.

__4*Friction*Length*density*average velocity squared__

2 * diameter

4fLρV^{2}/2D

Explain the velocity profile in laminar fluid flow

Velocity is slower and the boundary of fluid flow than the centre of fluid flow. The difference is called the boundary profile.