Density
Density: ρ=m/V
Archimedes' principle
buoyant force on an object = weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Buoyancy
F_{B} = weight_{displaced} = m_{displaced}g =ρ_{fluid}V_{submerged}g
When do objects float, sink, and rise upward in a fluid?

Things float when FB = Weight.

Things will rise upward when FB > Weight.

Things will sink when FB < Weight.
Things float when FB = Weight.
Things will rise upward when FB > Weight.
Things will sink when FB < Weight.
Pascal's Law
if you apply pressure on a liquid, the pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the liquid.
Pressure in relation to depth

P=ρgh

P is pressure, ρ is the density of the fluid; g is the gravitational constant, h is the height from the surface, or depth that the object is submerged.
P=ρgh
P is pressure, ρ is the density of the fluid; g is the gravitational constant, h is the height from the surface, or depth that the object is submerged.
Viscosity: Poiseuille flow
When a viscous fluid flows through a pipe, the flow has a front that is shaped like a parabola bulging outward.
Continuity equation
A·v = constant, where v is linear flow rate (velocity).
Concept of turbulence at high velocities

Low velocity > laminar flow.

High velocity > turbulent flow, forms eddies.
Low velocity > laminar flow.
High velocity > turbulent flow, forms eddies.
Surface tension

Surface tension gives the surface of a liquid the ability to support things that are very light.

For example, insects can walk on water due to surface tension.

Surface tension is due to the attraction between the molecules of the solvent.
Surface tension gives the surface of a liquid the ability to support things that are very light.
For example, insects can walk on water due to surface tension.
Surface tension is due to the attraction between the molecules of the solvent.
Bernoulli's equation
P + ½ρv^{2} + ρgh = constant
Elastic properties (elementary properties) of solids

Stress: the pressure exerted on an object. σ = stress = F/A.

Strain: the deformation of the object in the direction of the applied force divided by the original length. ε = strain = ΔL/L0.
Stress: the pressure exerted on an object. σ = stress = F/A.
Strain: the deformation of the object in the direction of the applied force divided by the original length. ε = strain = ΔL/L0.
Young's Modulus

Young's modulus = stress / strain.

Young's modulus, the ratio between stress and strain, is constant until you reach the elastic limit, where things get permanently deformed.
Young's modulus = stress / strain.
Young's modulus, the ratio between stress and strain, is constant until you reach the elastic limit, where things get permanently deformed.
Elastic Limit
The maximum stress something can handle before it breaks or become permanently deformed.
Thermal expansion coefficient
Things expand when temperature rises, and contract when temperature falls.
ΔL = αL_{0}ΔT
ΔL is the change in length, L_{0} is the initial length, ΔT is the change in temperature, and α is the coefficient of linear expansion.
Expansion for area and volume
ΔV = βV_{0}ΔT = 3αV_{0}ΔT
ΔA = γA_{0}ΔT = 2αA_{0}ΔT
Shear