Flashcards in Fluids, Electrolytes and Action Potential Deck (13):
What is the Molecular make up and its common elements of the human body
- Oxygen (O) 65% of body mass
- Carbon (C) 18.5%
- Hydrogen (H) 9.5%
- Nitrogen (N) 3.2%
- Sodium (S) 0.2%
- Chlorine (CL) 0.2%
Define Cellular Respiration
- The cell seems to “respire” in a way that it takes in molecular oxygen (as an electron acceptor) and releases carbon dioxide (as an end product), hence, the process is described to be aerobic. There are organisms that use other organic molecules as electron acceptors instead of oxygen. This type of respiration in which oxygen is not used as a final electron acceptor is referred to as anaerobic.
In anaerobic respiration (respiration in absence of oxygen), pyruvate is not metabolized by cellular respiration but undergoes a process of fermentation. The pyruvate is not transported into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is converted to waste products that may be removed from the cell.
Cellular respiration is essential to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells since biochemical energy is produced to fuel many metabolic processes, such as biosynthesis, locomotion, transportation of molecules across membranes.
The entire process occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm whereas the Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrion. Prokaryotic cells can yield a maximum of 38 ATP molecules while eukaryotic cells can yield a maximum of 36.
How does anything move through a membrane wall
- Passive - Simple diffusion
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Active - Active Transport
- Cellular Endo/Exoctosuis = encapsulating and expelling
Define Action Potential
- The rapid change in electric potential that parts of a nerve cell undergo when a nerve impulse is generated. Unlike ordinary electric current, which consists of the flow of electrons, the action potential involves the movement of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.
Name the types of Ionic Channels
- Leakage Channel
- Ligard Gate Channel
- Mechanically Gated Channel
- Voltage Gate Channel
Define what a Leakage Channel does
- These gates randomly open and close allowing K+ and Na+ to pass
Define what a Ligard Gate Channel does
- Open and close to chemical command e.g., neurotransmitters
Define what a Mechanically Gated Channel does
- Opens and closes to mechanical stimulation like stretch, touch, or sound e.g., baroreceptors
Define what a Voltage Gate Channel does
- Responds to change in membrane potential (voltage)
What is a action potential or impulse
Its a rapid sequence of events that produces a large membrane potential
- First phase Depolarisation
- Second Phase Repolarisation
Define Resting Membrane Potential
Its the electrical potential difference that exists across a plasma membrane in a cell at a resting state
AP will not be generated if the required voltage is not achieved