Flashcards in Food safety Deck (30):
List at least 5 important waterborne pathogens
Giardia, E.coli, enterococci, salmonella, cyclospora, vibrio cholerae, shigella
Percentage of asymptomatic human listeria carriers
What is the lowest water activity bacteria can grow in
What is the recommended maximum water activity for long shelf life products that only allows the growth of a few yeasts and molds?
Irradiation dosage for red meat?
4.5 kGy if refridgerated, 7 kGy if frozen
Listeria incubation period
1 day - 2 months
Listeria temperature growth range
34-113°F (-1.5 and 45°C, above 50 lethal)
Listeria pH growth range
Why is pepperoni pizza not regulated by FSMA?
It has more than 2% of meat in it and thus falls under USDA FSIS
Why nitrosamines occur in food
nitrosamines are carcinogens produced from nitrites and secondary amines from proteins in strongly acidic or high temperatures.
What prevents nitrosamine formation in food
The addition of ascorbate acid or other antioxidants such as sodium erythorbate.
Two amendments that removed farmers, ranchers and local processors from federal oversight, leaving them within the existing regulatory framework of state and local health and sanitation laws and rules. For operations that sell less than $500,000 a year and sell greater than 50% of their products directly to consumers in the same state and within a 400-mile radius.
Vaccine preventable (2 weeks post exposure), fecal-oral, incubation 14-28d, symptoms: fatigue, low appetite, stomach pain, nausea, and jaundice. Self limiting in weeks to months. Survives freezing, not cooking.
USDA-FSIS Field operations consists of what?
10 District Offices
produce with the highest loads of pesticide residues according to the EWG Environmental Working Group
strawberries, spinach, nectarines, apples, grapes, peaches, cherries, pears, tomatoes, celery, potatoes and sweet bell peppers
Food Safety Modernization Act
FSMA; The food safety law passed by Congress in 2010 aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus of federal regulators from responding to contamination to preventing it.
How many suffer a food borne illness each year?
1 out of 6, (48 million people)
More than 100,000 are hospitalized, and
What are the 5 key points of FSMA?
Preventive Controls, Imported Food Safety, Inspection/Compliance, Enhanced Partnership, Response
FSMA 8 rules
1. Accredited Third-Party Certification
2.Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food
3. Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals
4. Foreign Supplier Verification Programs (FSVP)
5. Mitigation Strategies to Protect Food Against Intentional Adulteration
6. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food
7. Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption
8. Voluntary Qualified Importer Program (VQIP)
Common source of e. coli O157 infections in people, most common first.
undercooked ground beef, salami, sushi, ice cream, milk, cheese, curds, unpasteurized apple cider and juice, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts. Contaminated swimming water, petting zoos, handling calves, dogs
Raw pet food risks
Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, salmonella and e.coli O157, some AMR strains. Can infect pet, who can become carrier and infect humans. Cross contamination while handling food in kitchen. Incomplete and unbalanced in nutrient levels.
EHEC pathogenesis factors
Enterohemorrhagic E coli are characterized by the
presence of Shiga toxin (Stx) genes, locus for enterocyte
effacement (LEE), and a large molecular weight
plasmid that encodes for a hemolysin.
What is required and recommended to be in a food safety plan?
Required by law: Hazard analysis, Preventive controls (for process, food allergen, sanitation,
supply-chain and other), recall plan, procedures for monitoring, corrective action and verification. Recommended: Facility overview and Food Safety
Team, Product description, Flow diagram, Process description
Most common food recall reasons?
Undeclared allergens, salmonella, listeria, nutritient imbalances, undeclared sulfites, e.coli, drug contaminations, e.coli
Big 8 allergens
Milk, Egg, Peanut, Tree nuts, Fish, Crustacean shellfish, Wheat, Soy - Cause 90% of severe allergic reactions
Steps to develop a FSMA required food safety plan
•Assemble a Food Safety Plan team
•Describe product and its intended use and distribution
•Develop a flow diagram and process description
•Compare flow diagram to what actually happens in facility and revise
•Conduct Hazard Analysis and determine Preventive Control(s)
•Determine appropriate control (process, sanitation, allergen, supply chain, other)
•Establish verification and monitoring procedures including Corrective Actions
•Establish validation procedures
•Develop Recall Plan
12 steps of creating a HACCP plan:
1. create a multidiciplinary food safety team
2. describe the product
3. describe the consumer and consuming method
4. make a flow diagram from receiving to to shipping
5. on site confirmation of the flow diagram
6. HACCP analysis (1)
7. determine CCP points (2)
8. set critical limits (3)
9. establish monitoring procedures (4)
10. establish corrective actions (5)
11. verify and validate (6)
12. document and keep records (7)
what are NARMS objectives?
- Monitoring: trends in antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria from
humans, retail meats and animals
- Disseminate timely information: on antimicrobial resistance to promote interventions that reduce resistance among foodborne bacteria
- Conduct research: to better understand the emergence, persistence, and spread of antimicrobial resistance
- Assist the FDA: in making decisions related to the approval of safe and effective antimicrobial drugs for animals
What is the antimicrobial testing method used by NARMS
Broth microdilution method, WSG and in the past Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)