Flashcards in Infectious diseases Deck (38):
List at least 3 important picornaviruses
FMD, Swine vesicular disease, seneca valley virus, equine rhinitis virus, polio (enterovirus)
New world screwworm scientific name
What disease is hog cholera
Classic Swine fever virus (flaviviridae - pestivirus)
List 3 pestiviruses
classic swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea, sheep borderd disease
What causes the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome?
Four corners virus or Sin Nombre virus
Salmonella serovariant related to cattle
Salmonella serovariant related to swine
Salmonella serovariant related to sheep
Salmonella serovariant related to poultry
Salmonella Gallinarum and Pullorum (mainly chicken)
Salmonella serovariant related to humans
Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi
Circling disease agent and animal
Listeria monocytogenes, ruminants
Q fever symptoms in animals and humans
abortions in animals, respiratory disease and pneumonia in people
Q fever incubation period
Dengue fever: name, group, vector, hosts, mortality, treatment,
Breakbone fever - flavivirus (WN, Yellow fever), humans & primates only, Aedes Aegypti and Albopictus, 20% mortality untreated, vaccine available
Hepatitis vaccine is available for what types
Hepatitis A & B
Hepatitis virus types transmitted by food
A & E - fecal-oral
What is the leading cause for requiring a liver transplant in the US?
Hepatitis C virus
What is prp superscript c?
The normal prion protein found in the surface of neurons
What can cause TSE?
Genetic: mutation-hereditary, infectious: exposure to PrP Sc, sporadic: spontaneous mutation
Sheep and goats. Neurological signs and intense pruritus, start gazing, chewing tremors. Death in 2-6 weeks, sometimes 6 months. Not found in Australia and New Zealand. Resistant sheeps, selective depop. found in alimentary - feces & gut lymphoid
Specified Risk Materials of BSE
All cattle: Distal ileum of the small intestine, Tonsils. Cattle 30 months of age and older: Brain, Skull, Eyes, Trigeminal ganglia, Spinal cord, Vertebral column (excluding the tail vertebrae, transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum), Dorsal root ganglia
What tissues can CWD be found?
Muscle, fat, organs, antler velvet and CNS tissues, excreted in many body fluids such as feces, saliva, blood, or urine
What does the BSE feed regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) stipulate on deer?
Most material from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals, animal feed and feed ingredients containing material from a CWD-positive animal would be considered adulterated.
What is the WHO guideline on TSE animal usage as feed?
No part or product of any animal with evidence of CWD or other TSEs should be fed to any species (human, or any domestic or captive animal)
TSE prevention and control measures
• Targeted surveillance for clinical neurological disease
• Livestock identification for surveillance and traceback to suspect livestock
• Transparency in reporting findings of TSE
• Safeguards on importation of live ruminant species and their products
• Removal of specified risk material (SRM) (brain, spinal column) during slaughter and processing (cattle)
• Appropriate disposal of carcasses and animal products • Prohibit the inclusion of SRM in animal feeds
TSE sampling areas
Cervid: Retropharangeal LN, obex, recto-anal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT); blood, urine, feces, saliva.
Sheep, goats: brain, palantine lymph nodes, third eyelid lymph follicles, rectal mucosa
National Scrapie Eradication Program consists of?
scrapie slaughter surveillance, trace investigations, on-farm testing, scrapie free flock certification program, animal ID's of importance because of this
CWD herd certification program
National voluntary CWD herd certification program (HCP) as well as interstate movement requirements for farmed and captive cervids (deer, elk, moose)
BSE surveillance program
Ongoing surveillance of: cattle with CNS signs, VDL necropsy with similar clinical signs, render 3D and 4D facilities carcasses, slaughter over 30mths of age that is condemned or excluded due to health
Acceptable forms of TSE carcass disposal
Alkaline hydrolysis and fixed-facility incineration. Some states accept these to landfill. No rendering, burial or composting recommended.
What is casualty slaughter
The slaughter at a slaughterhouse, of an injured animal that has been deemed fit for transport under veterinary certification.
What is fallen stock
Any animal that has died of natural causes or disease on a farm or that has been killed on a farm for reasons other than human consumption.
Agent specific antibody is coupled to an enzyme-chromogen marker that allows microscopic visualisation of target antigens in individual tissues or cells
Tropical disease that starts from painless lump caused by mycobacterium ulcerans that infects humans and many mammals. Epidemia in Victoria, Australia 2018
OIE mission areas
1. Transparency - disease occurence in member countries distributed trough WAHIS.
2. Scientific information - collect, analyse, distribute, 3 issues a year of the scientific and Technical Review.
3. International solidarity - technical support to control and eradicate animal diseases
4. Sanitary safety - develop normative rules around disease prevention
5. Promote veterinary services - improve legal fraimwork
6. Food safety & animal welfare - Codex Alimentarius Commission cooperation in pre slaughter settings and leading international organisation in animal welfare
Main normative works done by OIE
1. The Terrestrial Animal Health Code
2. The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
3. The Aquatic Animal Health Code
4. The Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals
Who regulates genetically engineered products and how?
FDA - food and animals trough new animal drug legislation, includes Durability (alteration is stable),
Environmental and food safety (hormonal & nutritional profile), environmental impacts, for food-producing animals their safety for humans and animals themselves, claim validation.
APHIS - Plant Protection Act, planting, importation, or transportation, needs to be stable, not cause plant disease and contained