Flashcards in Food Theory Deck (32)
What are the levels of associated risk in food related activities?
The Levels of associated risk in food related activities are as follows:
• Low risk (Level 1):
Examples of low-risk cooking equipment are crepe makers and microwave-convection ovens and nonelectrical equipment, leg. whisks, sifters, measuring cups and any other implement that will not cause injury unless seriously abused!.
• Moderate risk (Level 2):
Examples of moderate risk cooking equipment are steamers, pressure cookers, cappuccino machines and unearthed appliances such as toasters. Electrical appliances, cutting or garnishing tools and any other implement that by virtue of its action or use could cause injury if sufficient training is not provided in its safe operation.
• Substantial risk (Level 3):
Examples of substantial risk cooking equipment are woks and deep fat fryers
What are some hazards that may be encountered in food technology activities?
Hazards that may be encountered in food technology activities include:
• Cuts and abrasions from sharp edges, knife blades, door and cupboard corners
• Burns from steam, hot liquids, microwave foods
• Fire from fats, oils, paper, fabric, electrical faults or gas leakage
• Spills from fats, oils, liquids, food
• Explosion from the combustion of steam
Activity location considerations
• The work area should have adequate lighting to ensure comfortable working conditions
• The work area should be appropriate for food technology activities. Bench tops should be made of a suitable material. Bench heights need to be considered in relation to the type of cooking equipment being used.
• Adequate supervision of students in the work area should be maintained at all times
• First aid equipment and supplies should be available and easily accessible.
• A clearly sign‐posted First Aid Station in the work area is recommended.
• Appropriate facilities in the food area need to be available, to ensure a satisfactory standard of personal hygiene is possible, leg. washing facilities and garbage disposal)
• Washing‐up facilities are to be functional, including an adequate supply of hot water and cleaning agents.
• An adequate facility for food storage is to be present to ensure there is no risk of food contamination.
General storage facilities need to be available
• Power outlets will need to be adequate and easily accessible.
• The work area requires non‐slip coverings on level floor surfaces with, no damage or cracks that can cause a potential hygiene risk or a tripping hazard.
• Kitchen equipment, tools, appliances and furniture should be arranged and organised so
that the teacher is are able to see all work areas clearly
What safety checks and precautions should be carried
out when preparing to set up and use equipment in the food technology area?
The following safety checks and precautions should be carried out when preparing to set up and use equipment in the food technology area:
• Always check that the equipment is in good working.
• Check all adjustments and settings carefully before
commencing any operation.
• The work area should be clean and free of equipment, rubbish and other obstacles.
• Ensure you have had instruction and training in the use the equipment found in this environment and satisfactorily completed the relevant OHS test.
• Cupboards and drawers must be kept closed at all times.
• Always use oven gloves when handling hot kitchen utensils and other items.
• Put heat mats under hot items such as saucepans and dishes, and practice extreme caution when carrying hot items.
• Do not turn power on or off, or remove electrical plugs with wet hands.
• Do not use damaged or broken equipment (report anything broken to the teacher).
• Wipe up any food spills immediately.
• Chairs in the area should be neatly placed under work desks.
• Be aware of the location of the fire extinguisher and the fire blanket.
• Do not enter the food preparation room without your
• Wear PPE to protect your hands from burns, such as oven mitts.
• Do not wear loose clothing, especially long sleeves and neck ties.
• Tie long hair back or wear PPE such as chef’s hat or cap.
• Wear a cotton apron and enclosed leather shoes.
• Do not run in the Food Technology area and keep noise levels to a minimum.
• Stay in the designated work bay.
• Do not flick other students with tea towels.
• Do not throw items of equipment in the Food Technology room.
• Do not remove knives from the food technology room.
• Always use an appropriate cutting board.
• Pass knives by offering the handle first.
• Take care not to unnecessarily wave knives around.
• Always place knives in the centre of the work table.
• When using a knife always cut away from yourself.
• If you have to carry a knife make sure to carry it point down.
SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES AND INSTRUCTION
KNIVES ‐ BLADE LESS THAN 18CM
THE RISK OF INJURY WHEN USING THIS MACHINE IS MODERATE ‐ LEVEL 2 RISK
The selection of knives for a particular task, the correct grip, the proper use of the knife blade and the
sharpening methods are all-important considerations.
The best way to learn knife-handling techniques is to watch demonstrations and to practice.
IDENTIFIED RISKS AND HAZARDS
General hazards that may arise when using knives:
• incorrect choice of knife for application
• cuts from not using correct grip on food/knife
• not securing chopping board on bench
• not using plastic scraper to remove food from knife
• incorrect washing, drying and carrying procedures
The specific hazard that may arise from the use and cleaning
of knives is cuts from the sharp blades.
Cuts can also occur from touching metal parts especially when
washing up knives in a sink full of soapy water. Use caution
• Keep knives sharp. A sharp knife is safer than a dull one - it requires less pressure and is
less likely to slip.
• Use a cutting board - do not cut against an unyielding surface. Eg. Laminex, metal and glass.
To keep the cutting board from slipping, place a damp towel
or non-slip mat under the board.
• When using a knife or cutting equipment, pay attention to
• Cut away from your body when cutting, peeling, trimming or
• Use protective clothing (e.g., meat aprons and mesh
gloves) when trimming meat
• Don't try to catch a falling knife. Step back and let it fall.
• Don't put knives in a sink, under water or any place where
they cannot be seen.
• Clean knives carefully, with sharp edge away from you.
• Store knives in a safe place, such as in a rack or knife block, when not in use.
• Carry knives properly.
• Use the correct knife for the job you are doing.
MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE
CARE & STORAGE OF KNIVES
• Knives should be cleaned and dried immediately after use.
• Use a mild detergent for washing.
• Rinse under warm water.
• Dry with a soft cloth, from the back of the blade.
• Never leave knives in a sink of water.
• Handle knives carefully. Hold the knife‐edge away from the body.
• When carrying a knife, make sure the blade faces downwards.
• Knives need to be stored carefully.
• Don't let your knives rust.
• The material used in professional knives is very different to sinks, pots and pans, forks
and spoons, etc. It is less corrosion resistant, but harder. Simply wash and dry your
knives after each use. Don't leave them wet on the sink, and don't put them in the
• Handle your knives carefully when cutting.
There are some simple techniques that make the food preparation process much more pleasant,
faster, and safer. One of the keys is the hand grip on the food.
Types of knives
Utility (Salad) Knife
Narrow, pointed, 18cm long. Used for pantry work (cutting and preparing lettuce and fruit)
Small pointed blade 10cm. Used for trimming and paring vegetables and fruit
Sharp, curved – ideal for peeling and preparing all types of fruit and vegetables.
Sharp, curved, plain edged blade 10cm – ideal for peeling and preparing all types of fruit and vegetables
Serrated Slicer (Steak Knife)
Like a slicer, but with a serrated edge, rounded tip. Used for cutting breads and cakes.
Running is forbidden in the Food Technology Room.
Protective clothing (PPE) and enclosed footwear must be worn during practical cooking lessons.
True / False
You are allowed to leave your work bay to observe other students doing practical work
A wet tea towel can be used to carry hot oven trays
Do not turn the power off after using an electrical item.
Make sure you use a crockery or plastic plate when cutting up food
Hold the knife blade when passing a sharp knife to someone else.
If oil catches alight put water on it
If gas fails to ignite keep trying until it works.
Unblock a blender with a wooden spoon.
Turn it off first, empty it then unblock it
Keep griller doors closed during use
The fire extinguisher and fire blanket are located in the clearly signposted corner of the Food Technology Room.
Fill in the blanks: A sharp knife is safer than a dull one - it requires less __________ and is less likely to slip.
Fill in the blanks: Use protective clothing such as meat aprons and __________ gloves when trimming meat.
Fill in the blanks: A common source of injury occurs when the knife slides off the vegetable as it __________ during the cut.
Fill in the blanks: The operator must have had __________ and training in the correct and proper use of knives.
Fill in the blanks: Cuts can also occur from knives especially when __________ them in a sink full of soapy water.
Fill in the blanks: The key to keeping knives sharp is to use the __________ daily, and the sharpening stone about once a month.
Fill in the blanks: The side of the knife blade should remain in contact with the _____________ so that the left hand acts as a guide for the blade.
Fill in the blanks: Knives need to be stored carefully. If knives are kept in ____________ , each knife must be covered with a shield
Junk food facts
About nine in 10 teenagers eat junk food every day. This might be fizzy drinks and high‐kilojoule snacks like potato chips. However, your body can’t run properly on inferior fuel. Compared to home‐cooked food, junk food (which includes fast food) is almost always:
• • •
Higher in fat, particularly saturated fat Higher in salt
Higher in sugar Lower in fibre
Lower in nutrients such as vitamins and minerals Served in larger portions, which means more kilojoules.
While a mid-life heart attack might seem too far away to be real, it may surprise you to know that you could have health problems already. A poor diet can cause weight gain, high blood pressure, constipation, fatigue and concentration problems – even when you’re young.
HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR DIET WITHOUT EVEN TRYING
Small changes can make a big impact. Try these tips:
• Cut back on fizzy sugary drinks. Go for sugar-free versions. Even better, drink water instead – try adding a slice of lemon, lime or orange.
• Keep a fruit bowl stocked at home for fast and low-kilojoule snacks.
• Eat breakfast every day so you’re less likely to snack on junk food at morning tea. A
fortified breakfast cereal served with low fat milk can provide plenty of vitamins, mineral
and fibre. Other fast and healthy options include yoghurt or wholemeal toast.
• Don’t skip lunch or dinner either.
• Help with the cooking and think up new ways to create healthy meals. Make those old family recipes lower in fat by changing the cooking method – for example, grill, stir-fry, bake, boil or microwave instead of deep frying.
• Reduce the size of your meals.
• Don’t add salt to your food.
• Don’t eat high fat foods every time you visit a fast food outlet with your friends. Many of the popular fast food chains now have healthier food choices on the menu.
• Change your meeting place. Rather than meeting up with your friends at the local takeaway shop, suggest a food outlet that serves healthier foods such as wholemeal rolls or sushi.
CHANGE THE WAY YOU THINK ABOUT FOOD
There are lots of myths around about healthy food. Don’t make food choices based on false beliefs. Suggestions include:
• Compare the prices of junk foods against the price of healthier food options to see that ‘healthy’ doesn’t have to mean ‘expensive’.
• Experiment with different foods and recipes. You’ll soon discover that a meal cooked with fresh ingredients always leaves a limp burger or soggy chips for dead.
• Try different ‘fast’ options like wholewheat breakfast cereal, muesli, wholemeal bread, wholegrain muffins, fruit, yoghurt or noodles. ‘Fast food’ doesn’t have to mean ‘junk food’.
• Don’t think that your diet has to be ‘all or nothing’. Eating well doesn’t mean you must be a health food freak. A good diet allows for treats occasionally.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
A teenager who eats fast food regularly is more likely to put on weight than a teenager who eats fast food only occasionally.
Many teenagers wrongly assume that healthy foods are expensive and tasteless.
Eating well doesn’t mean you must be a health food freak – a good diet allows for your favourite junk foods occasionally.