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Flashcards in Foot Deck (32):
1

What are the divisions of the foot and bones of each division?

-hindfoot - (heel) talus and cancaneus
-midfoot - navicular, cuboid and cuneiforms
-forefoot - (ball) - metatarsals and phalanges

2

What are the two longitudinal arches?

-medial part
-lateral part

3

What forms the medial longitudinal arch?

-calcaneus
-talus
-navicular
-3 cuneiforms and metatarsals 1-3

4

What forms the lateral longitudinal arch?

-calcaneus
-cuboid
-4th-5th metatarsals

5

What strengthens and suspends the medial longitudinal arch?

Strengthens:
-plantar calcaneonavicular l.
-plantar aponeurosis
Suspends:
-tibialis anterior m.
-fibularis longus t.
-deltoid l.

6

What forms the transverse arch?

-cuboid
-3 cuneiforms
-base of metatarsals 1-5

7

What strengthens and suspends the lateral longitudinal arch?

Strengthened:
-long and short plantar ll.
-plantar aponeurosis
Suspends:
-fibularis longus m.
-fibularis brevis m.

8

What is the keystone of the medial and lateral longitudinal arch?

Medial keystone: talar head
Lateral keystone: cuboid

9

What muscles of the foot are in the 1st layer?

-abductor hallucis
-flexor digitorum brevis
-abductor digiti minimi

10

What muscles of the foot are in the 2nd layer?

-lumbricals (1-4)

11

What muscles of the foot are in the 3rd layer?

-flexor hallucis brevis
-adductor hallucis
-flexor digiti minimi brevis

12

What muscles of the foot are in the 4th layer?

-plantar interossei
-dorsal interossei

13

Abductor Hallucis

O: medial tubercle of tuberosity of clacaneus; flexor retinaculum; plantar aponeurosis
I: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
A: ABD and flexion of great toe (hallux)
N: medial plantar n. (S2,S3)

14

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

O: medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; inter muscular septa
I: Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral 4 digits
A: flexion of lateral 4 digits
N: medial plantar n. (S2, S3)

15

Abductor digiti minimi

O: medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; inter muscular septa
I: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
A: ABD and flexion of 5th digit (little toe)
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)

16

Quadratus Plantae

O: medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus
I: Posterolateral margin t. of FDL
A: Assits FDL in flexing lateral 4 digits
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)

17

Lumbricals (1-4)

O: individual tendons of FDL
I: medial aspect of expansion over lateral 4 digits
A: flexion of proximal phalanges; extend middle and distal flanges lateral 4 digits
N: 1st lumbrical - medial plantar n. (S2, S3)
2nd -4th lumbricals - lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)

18

Flexor Hallucis Brevis

O: plantar surface of cuboid, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms
I: both sides base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
A: flexion of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
N: medial plantar n. (S2, S3)

19

Adductor Hallucis

O: oblique head - base of metatarsals 2-4
transverse head - plantar ll. of MTP joints
I: lateral side base of the proximal phalanx of 1st digit
A: ADD of 1st digit; assists maintaining transverse arch by puling lateral 4 digits medial
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)

20

Flexor digiti minimi brevis

O: base of 5th metatarsal
I: base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
A: flexion of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)

21

Plantar Interossei

O: bases and medial dies of metatarsals 3-5
I: medial sides of bases of flanges of 3rd-5th digits
A: ADD digits 3-5; flex MP joints
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)
*PAD - planter interossei ADduct

22

Dorsal Interossei

O: adjacent sides o metatarsals 1-5
I: 1st - medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit
2nd-4th - lateral side of proximal phalanx of 2nd
digits
A: ABD digits 2-4; flex MP joints
N: lateral plantar n. (S2, S3)
*DAB - dorsal interossei ABduct

23

What is the terminal branch of posterior tibial a.?

lateral plantar a.

24

What is the terminal branch of the posterior tibial a.?

medial plantar a.

25

What are the terminal branch(s) of tibial n.?

medial and lateral plantar nn.

26

Where does the Saphenous n. come from?

Femoral n.

27

Where is the lateral dorsal cutaneous n. from and what does it supply?

From Sural n.
Supplies skin on lateral margin of foot

28

What supplies the skin of the heel?

-medial calcaneal branch of tibial n.
-lateral calcaneal branch of sural n.

29

Extensor digitorum brevis

O: calcaneus; interosseous talocalcaneal l.; stem of inferior extensor retincaculum
I: long extensor tendons of 3 medial digits (toes 2-4)
A: aids EDL in extension of 3 medial digits at the EMP and IP joints
N: lateral branch deep fibular n. (L5 or both)

30

Extensor Hallucis brevis

O: Calcaneus; interosseous talcalcaneal l.; stem of inferior extensor retinaculum
I: dorsal aspect base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
A: aids EHL in extension of 1st digit at the MP joint
N: lateral branch of deep fibular n. (L5 or S1 or both)

31

What are the 4 places to take a pulse in the lower limb?

1.Femoral artery in fermoral triangle
2.politeal artery in popliteal fossa
3.posterior artery behind medial malleolus
4.dorsalis pedis artery begins midway between malleoli

32

Dorsalis pedis a. is a direct continuation of what a.?

Anterior tibial a.