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Flashcards in Foreign Policy Deck (18):
1

Context

16th Century Europe dominated by major power houses Spain and France; England somewhat restricted to a reactive foreign policy lacking power to dictate events

2

Aims

Security
Defence of Protestantism
Trade

3

Security: borders

Treaty of Berwick, 1560: provided Scottish Lords of the Congregation with an army to expel French troops garrisoning Scottish fortresses

Spanish in Ireland

4

Security: alliance with one of the two power house

Treaty of Blois, 1572: countered deteriorating Anglo-Spanish relations (April Sea Beggars expelled, 1572)

5

Security: evidence of failure

Treaty of Joinville, 1584: political isolation – reactive > Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585

Spanish Armada, 1588

6

Security: conclusion

Challenged by dominance of Spain and France rather than her own mistakes

7

Security: historiography

David Loades: EI strategy was always defensive

8

Protestantism: evidence

With no immediate threat to security EI had less of a stance to take action in Calvinist Netherlands

Huguenots, France, 1560-1: unsuccessful: Treaty of Troyes 1564

The Spanish Fury, 1575-6: dangerous position – alienated Spanish and does nothing to help Dutch

Anjou in the Netherlands, 1581-2: sponsored by EI

9

Protestantism: Netherlands: why?

Protection of trade: Antwerp: cloth trade 90% exports

Security: easier for Spanish to launch invasion - geographical springboard

EUROPEAN BALANCE OF POWER: France in decline, Spain growing

Influence of councillors? Walshingham French Ambassador and Protestant, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572

10

Protestantism: conclusion

Foreign policy broadly fashioned in terms of this aim but sacrificed in favour of pragmatism – security

11

Protestantism: historiography

D.J.B. Trim: policy driven by religion

12

Trade: evidence

Support of Dutch Revolt (1566), 1575 onwards: Netherlands essential for cloth trade (90% exports) due to port of Antwerp

Overseas trade : San Juan Ulua, 1568: John Hawkins and fleet funded by EI blockaded after taking shelter – deteriorating relations with Spanish

Overseas exploration: Sir Francis Drake, Sir Richard Greynvile, New World

13

Information deficit

Influence of Cecil and Walshingham: diplomats owed position to them – bias, distortion

14

Councillors: historiography

Conyers Read: influence of Walshingham's Protestantism and pragmatism of Cecil

Stephen Alford: secular pragmatism of Walshingham and Protestant outlook of Cecil underestimated

Susan Doran: contradictory advice confused EI policy

P Williams: strong EI ruled over council

15

EI: gender issue

Unable to lead army

Leicester disobeyed in the Netherlands, 1586, opinion dismissed

16

Historiography

Traditional propaganda: glorified EI and Spanish Armada, 1588

C Wilson: no foreign policy and haphazard – “obstinate”

Susan Doran: at times merely reactive but still at times successful

17

Relations with France 1558-1574

Death of Francis II and decline of Catholic Guise Faction, 1560

Marriage negotiations, Henri Duke d'Anjou, 1568

Treaty of Blois, 1572

Renewal of Blois, 1574 (St Bart's)

18

Relations with France 1584-1603

Decrease
Treaty of Joinville, 1584: Catholic Alliance: Philip II, Catholic League. Isolation (+ MQS!!)

Increase
Accession of Henry IV, 1589: Huguenot
Triple Alliance, 1596: (Netherlands)