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Flashcards in Forensic aspects of anoxic deaths Deck (18):
1

Types of anoxia

- anoxic anoxia
- anaemic anoxia
- histotoxic anoxias
- stagnant anoxia

2

External causes of airway obstruction

- smothering
- strangulation
- throttling
- hanging

3

Internal causes of airway obstruction

- choking
- drowning
- diptheria

4

Causes of anoxic anoxia

- vitiated atmosphere
- obstruction
- disease (pulmonary fibrosis)

5

Causes of pulmonary fibrosis

- TB
- Mendelssohn's syndrome
- ARDS
- diffuse fibrosis after Paraquat poisoning

6

Types of histotoxic anoxias

- extracellular (cyanide)
- pericellular (halogenated hydrocarbons)
- substrate
- metabolic (CO2 poisoning)

7

Potential causes of stagnant anoxia

- exposure to severe cold
- constricting ties or ropes
- neurogenic cardiac arrest

8

Possible signs of anoxia at autopsy

- petechial haemorrhages, cyanosis
- other operative mechanisms (fluid in lungs)
- causation signs (bruises, ligature marks)
- other possible causes of death

9

Stages of asphyxia

- inspiratory dyspnoea and cyanosis
- expiratory dyspnoea, bradycardia, hypertension, unconsciousness, dilated pupils
- collapse with tachycardia, hypotension, defecation, engorgement of penis
- respiratory arrest

10

Signs of anoxia at autopsy

- visceral congestion
- petechial haemorrhages
- unclotted blood
- cardiac dilatation
- cyanosis
- pulmonary oedema

11

Mechanisms of death in choking

- laryngeal spasm
- foreign body impaction
- bolus death
- pneumonia, etc.

12

Who is prone to bolus deaths?

- ill-fitting dentures
- alcoholic intoxication
- mentally retarded
- after head injury

13

Mechanisms of death in strangulation

- construction of airway
- compression of carotid sinus (reflex cardiac arrest)
- occlusion of carotid arteries (cerebral ischaemia)

14

Postmortem findings in strangulation

- ligature marks
- fractures of hyoid bone
- paleness of face and neck
- marked asphyxial signs

15

Why might a law enforcement neck hold cause death?

- underlying disease or congenital anomaly
- accidental airway obstruction
- injuries to vertebral arteries

16

How might a hyoid bone fracture?

- direct lateral compression
- direct antero-posterior blow
- indirect violence

17

Causes of death in hangin

- anoxia
- reflex neurogenic cardiac arrest
- cord and brian stem damage
- interference with cerebral circulation

18

Why do a bloodless neck dissection?

To prevent dissection artefacts