General Principles of Trauma and Wounds Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Principles of Trauma and Wounds Deck (32):
1

Definition of trauma

injury to the body caused by physical or chemical factors, resulting in wounds and possible complications

2

Definition of a wound

The disruption of the anatomical continuity of tissue caused by the application of force

3

Physical factors that can cause injury

- mechanical force
- thermal elements
- electrical current
- barotrauma
- irradiation
- ultrasound

4

The natures and extent of wounds depends on

- the object or instrument causing the wound
- the amount of energy discharged during impact
- the conditions under which the energy is discharged
- the nature of the affected tissue
- condition of the target

5

How can immersion in cold water kill?

- sudden death by neurogenic cardiac arrest
- hypothermia after prolonged immersion

6

Definition of an abrasion

Destruction of superficial layers of skin that may be caused by compression or friction

7

Types of abrasions

- tangential/ graze/ brush
- scratches
- impact
- friction

8

Definition of a bruise

Extravasation of blood into soft tissue spaces due to the breaking of vessel walls caused by blunt force

9

Extent of bruising depends on:

- amount of force
- type of tissue

10

Complications of lacerations

- haemorrhage
- infections

11

Definition of an incised wound

A superficial wound in which the size of the wound on the surface is larger than the depth of the wound

12

Definition of a stab wound

A penetrating wound caused by a sharp or blunt instrument in which the depth of the wound is greater than the length

13

How to describe a sharp force wound

- site
- shape
- length
- depth
- structures damaged

14

Complications of incised wounds

- harmorrhage
- infection
- paralysis

15

Types of haemorrhage

- primary
- reactionary
- secondary

16

Classification of shock

- cardiogenic
- hypovolaemic
- septic
- neurogenic

17

Types of embolisms

- thrombo-embolism
- air embolism
- amniotic fluid embolism
- fat embolism
- foreign body embolism

18

Microscopic features that can help you to age wounds

- capillary vasodilatation
- margination and diapedesis of polymorphonuclear white cells
- scab formation
- re-epithelialisaiton
- fibroblastic proliferation
- healing and scar formation
- haemosiderin may be present from 24hrs

19

Definition of a laceration

A tear in tissue produced by blunt force injury such that tissue is stretched, crushed, sheared or avulsed

20

General features of lacerations

- common over bony prominences
- characterised by tissue bridges
- linear lacerations produced by long thin objects
- irregular or Y-shaped produced by flat objects or surfaces

21

Where are defensive incised wounds found?

- palms
- backs of hands
- forearms
- upper arms

22

Factors determining the skin appearance of a stab wound

- shape of the weapon
- angle of thrust
- movement of the blade
- skin tension
- Langer's lines

23

Stages of shock

- non-progressive (compensated)
- progressive
- irreversible

24

Possible effects of shock (findings on PM)

- hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy
- subendocardial harmorrhage
- shock lung
- shock kidneys (ATN)
- centrilobular necrosis of liver
- adrenal gland haemorrhage
- gastric and duodenal ulceration (Curling's and Cushings)

25

Results of wound infection

- local sepsis
- septicaemia
- gas gangrene
- tetanus

26

Major disorders associated with DIC

- trauma (crush, burns)
- obstetric (abruption, embolism)
- infections
- neoplasms (leukaemia)
- miscellaneous (snake bite)

27

Definition of an embolism

An intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous material that is carried in the circulation and lodges within a blood vessel distant from its site or origin or point of entry into the circulation

28

Origin of PE

- lower extremity
- right heart
- pelvic

29

Mechanisms of air embolism

- trauma
- dysbarism
- therapeutic and diagnostic procedures
- obstetric

30

Mechanisms of death in air embolism

- blockage of vessels
- acute right heart failure
- DIC

31

Sources of fat embolism

- bone injuries
- soft tissue trauma
- burns
- pancreatitis

32

Types of ballistics

- internal
- external
- terminal