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Flashcards in Formation of relationships Deck (13)
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Reward/need satisfaction theory? Who and what?

Bryne and Clore, we spend to much time in relationships because we find them rewarding, It is split into direct reinforcement and liking through association which is also known as operant and classical conditioning.


Direct reinforcement?

The rewarding stimuli produces positive feelings; whereas the punishing stimuli produces negative feelings. It focuses on operant conditioning.
We enter relationships because of the positive outcome and the presence of individuals.


Liking through association?

This is when a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. someone we haven't met) is positively associated with a positive event - like classical conditioning.
E.g. if we meet someone at a concert - they are associated with a positive event so we are more inclined to like them and develop a relationship.


Evaluation. - creative task.

Griffit and Quay provided research support through a creative task.
They got participants to do a creative task and then the experimenter has to value the task they did. After, they were then asked to rate the examiner.
It was found that they rated the experimenter more positively if the experimenter rated the creative task higher.
This shows signs of positive reinforcement and supports the theory overall.


However? Lab setting.

We should treat this study with caution as it doesn't give directly support the formation of relationships as it does not tell us HOW relationships are formed.
It also lacks ecological validity and realism as it is conducted in a laboratory setting so it cannot be generalised to the real world which weakens the research support for the formation of relationships.


Evaluation. - Real world application.

There is real world application through Facebook.
It was found those who had facebook were more likely to hold better conversations in real life and have a more successful relationship.
Those who did not have facebook didn't have a successful relationship.
There was a positive correlation between facebook use and positive % negative feelings; which shows the indicators of relationship satisfaction.
This also disputes the lack of ecological validity and realism and supports classical conditioning.


Evaluation - culture bias.

This theory is also seen at culture biased as it is written from a western point of view so it cannot be applied to collectivist cultures.
Psychologists want a universal theory and the formation of relationships doesn't provide that.


Evaluation - evolutionary P.O.V.

This suggests that we form relationships because it is our basic need for survival; making the formation of relationships an adaptive behaviour.
It ensures that our genes are passed on and increases the chances of reproductive success.


Similarity Model?

The essence of this model is that similarities promotes liking when a relationship is developing.
There are two stages which are:
1) Looking at partners for dissimilarities.
2) Then, choosing the one who is most similar to develop a relationship.
People are more likely to pick someone who is similar to them to form a relationship.
Is is split into two things: personality and attitudes.



People are more attracted to each other due to personality traits.
It has been found that those who are more similar have a longer and happier relationship when compared to those who are dissimilar.
Caspi and Harper found that married couples intend to be happier if they are more similar in terms or personality.



Research has shown that 'attitude alignment' takes place in a relationship and this is when partners modify their attitudes so they are more similar.
This can lead to a relationship being more successful as they are more similar.
If a relationship doesn't develop it could be because they are too dissimilar.


Evaluation - Yoshida.

He pointed out that the similarity model only shows a narrow view of relationship factors and the model doesn't take into account any of the other factors.
Said that you need to consider other factors such as self-concept, economics, etc.
The other factors are all as equally important as similarities and personality.


Evaluation - Rosenbaum.

Suggested that dissimilarities was a more important factor for the formation of relationships when it comes to determining if a relationship will develop.
This is called the dissimilarity repulsion hypothesis!!!
It is thought that it would help knowing if a relationship will develop.