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Flashcards in Foundation Deck (34):
1

Human Computer Interaction

Human Computer Interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementatin of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.

Is concerned with:
* User-friendly design
* Interactive systems
* Human-machine interfaces

Main terms considered in HCI:
* Functionality
* Usability

2

Historical Timeline HCI

Late 1970s:
Everyone is a potential user of personal computers. Deficiencies of computers with respect to usability become obvious.

Early 1980s:
HCI as research field concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive systems. Draws on cognitive psychology (theoretical base) and software engineering (design approach)

1990s:
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) as research area focusing on technology support for cooperative activities. Sociology and anthropology as theoretical base

Mid 2000s:
Interaction design as an own discipline

Today:
Dynamic mix of ideas, approaches and philosophies

3

HCI Today

HCI is a vast and multifaceted community of communities.

Is bound by the evolving concept of usability and the integrating commitment to value human activity and experience as the primary driver of technology

4

Interactive Systems

Interactive System is an umbrella term describing technologies that deal with the transmission, display, storage or transformation of information that people can perceive. It covers components, devices, products and software systems that are primarily concerned with processing information. Interactive systems are devices and systems that respond dynamically to people's actions.

5

Historical Timeline Interactive Systems

1945:
first digital computers. huge machines housed in specially built, air-conditioned rooms.
operated by scientists and specialist computer programmers.
interaction: pressing switches and altering circuits

1960:
dominated by scientific and accounting applications.
data stored on paper tapes, punch cards, or magnetic tapes/disks.
little direct interaction: first screens as interactive devices and first vision of a computer network
development of mouse, hyperlinks

1970:
computing technologies spread into businesses
networked computers, emails, shared computing power
keyboards, mouses, screens became more common

1980:
first graphically based interfaces and interactions through pointing at icons
windows operating system
object-oriented computer programming; mirco-computers; fist game consoles, growth of the internet

1990:
color and multimedia; HTML => pictures, movies, music, text and live video links available.
growth of personal, community and corporate websites

2000:
anything connected to anything anywhere.
data transmission wired/wireless proliferation of mobile devices => ubiquitous computing
everything is synchronized and stored in the 'cloud' and broadband

6

Information Technology vs Information Systems

Information Technology:
IT is a collection of devices, software and accessories

Information Systems:
The information system is embodied in the ways people create value with information technology

The IS is not the IT and the formal processes being used
The IS is not the people using the IT and the formal and informal processes.
The IS is what emerges from the usage and adaptation of the IT and the formal and informal processes by all of its users

7

Definition: Information Systems (IS)

Information Systems refer to the effective design, delivery, use and impact of information and communication technologies in organizations and society.

Emergent interactions between social subsystem and technological subsystem

8

Definition: Interactive Information System

Interactive Information System is an umbrella term describing information systems that have a high degree of interaction with people and deal with the display, storage or transformation of information that people can perceive. It covers information and communication technologies that are primarily concerned with processing information in organizations and society. Interactive information systems are systems that respond dynamically to peoples actions.
(adapted from Benyon)

9

Interactive Information System Design Concerns

Technologies:
These are the interactive systems, products, devices and components themselves

People:
Who will use the systems and whose lives would become better through the design?

Design:
What is the design and how should you do it?

Activities & Contexts:
What do people want to do? What are the contexts within which those activites take place?

10

PACT Framework

* can be used to analyze and design interactive (information) systems
* Unterdatnd current situation, see where possible improvements can be made, envision future situations
* Technologies are there to support a wide range of people undertaking various activities in different contexts

11

People and their Differences

Physical Differences
* Heights, weights, gender
* In senses
* Technology experience and enjoy when using technology
* Impairments

Psychological and Social Differences
* Attention and human memory
* Mental models
* Language differences
* Personality (many different test to measure differences, e.g. BigFive Inventory ...)

12

Technologies

* High change rate of technologies
* Difficult to classify technologies as they are continually packaged in new ways and different combinations

Hardware => Input
Concerned with how people enter data and instructions into a system securely and safely


Software => Process

Hardware => Output
Displaying content to people rely primarily on three perceptual abilities:
* vision => most fundamental output device is screen or moniter
* hearing => significantly under-used, speech output is increasingly becoming popular (text-to speach)
* touch => printer, plotter, 3D printers, game-controllers

13

Ergonomics

The study of relationships between people and their environment

Environment includes:
* Ambient environment (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, light levels, noise)
* Work environment (design of machines, health & safety issues)

Is multidisciplinary, drawing on the anatomy and physiology, various aspects of psychology, physics, engineering and work studies

Imagine a keyboard and relatively fat fingers compared to small buttons or screens

(Small is good, but too small is bad: too easily lost, too difficult to use, too easily eaten by the dog...)

14

Activites

Activities can be very simple tasks, but also highly complex, lengthy activities

Important characteristics of activities
* Temporal
* Cooperation
* Complexity
* Safety critical (consequences of mistakes, results of mistakes)
* Nature of content (amount of data)

IS research focuses on "tasks" not "activities":
Tasks are broadly defined as the actions carried out by individuals in turning inputs into outputs.

15

Context

Difficult to define
Can be seen as
* surrounding an activity
* features that glue some activities together into a coherent whole

Organizational:
* changing technologies alter communication and power structures
* circumstance under which activities happen

Social:
* supportiveness, privacy, social norms (e.g. use of sound in an open-plan office)

Phyisical
* E.g. weather conditions, noise, humidity, geography, broadband conditions

16

Mental Models

Mental Model is the understanding and knowledge that we possess of something. It is developed through interacting with systems, observing relationships between their actions and the behaviours of the system, or reading any manuals or explanations.

Characteristics:
* are incomplete (some parts are better understood than others)
* "run" when required, but often with limited accuracy
* Are unstable - people forget details
* Do not have firm boundaries: similar devices and operations get confused with one another
* Are unscientific, exhibiting "superstitious" behavious
* Are parsimonious, people are willing to undertake additional physical operations to minimize mental effort

17

Attention

Attention is a concentration of the mind on a single object or thought, especially one preferentially selected from a complex, with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli.

Refers to selecting certain stimuli from among many and focusing on cognitive resources on those selected
Is the selection of some incoming information for further processing in memory
Relevant theories:
* filter theories
* capacity theories
* multiple resource theory

18

visual attention

neurons in the occipital cortex act as feature detectors tuned to respond maximally to highly specific visual features

research revealed that there is no consistent visual search pattern (e.g. left to right, clockwise), which can be predicted in advance

visual attention will be drawn to features that are
* large
* bright
* changing

physical organizations influences search patterns (e.g. table structures)

19

Filter Theories

Address the selective nature of attention

Postulate a bottleneck in the flow of information from initial sensory processing to registration in conscious awareness

Selective attention
* refers to the ability to perceive a particular stimulus of interest while ignoring a numerous other stimuli (filtering process)
* filtering can happen at an early stage (just after sensory processing) or at a late stage (after semantic processing)

Divided attention
* two or more stimuli share cognitive resources
* divided attention can in some sense be divided between tasks being performed simultaneously (multi-tasking)

Broadbent's single-channel model:
=> unattendet stimulus is completly blocked

Treisman's attention model:
=> unattended stimulus becomes attenuated
=> wether or not attenuated inputs get processed and to what degree is determined by their threshold

20

Capacity Theory

Attention is treated as a limited resource that is allocated to different processes

Kahnemans' capacity model

21

Multiple Resource Theory

Ability to perform two (multiple) tasks depend on available capacity and required specific resources

Three dimensions of resources
* auditory vs. visual perceptual modalities
* perceptual cognitive vs. response resources
* verbal vs spatial processing codes

Automatic processes
* require little mental effort (tasks we find easy)
* little or no demand on attention; fast processing; unaffected by capacity limitations

controlled processes
* require much mental effort (difficult, unfamiliar tasks)
* heavy demands on attention, slow processing, limited in capacity

22

Memory

Memory is one of the main components of a psychological view of humans that aims to explain how we think and act

It is not:
* just a single, simple information store
* a passive repository
* distinctive (words, names, images may be very similar making it difficult to distinct them from each other)
* a stable process (rather it is a constructive process)
* Meaningful study-able in isolation

23

Working memory

Made up from three key elements:

central executive
* involved in decision-making, planning and related activities
* involved in multi-tasking

articulatory (phonological) loop
* holds auditory information like an audio tape
* Process: rehersal (remembering by repeating either out loud or silently) => inner Voice

visuo-spatial sketchpad
* visual and spatial information => mind's eye
* limited in capacity and duration


Capacity:
4-5 items (e.g. words, phrases, images)
magical number of 7 is known to be incorrect

24

Mental effort

* capacity approach conceives of attention as mental effort
* the more a task requires of a limited pool of available capacity, the more mental effort the person exerts
* one way to measure mental effort is through increases in reaction time to a secondary task that competes for limited attentional capacity with a primary task

can be measured during individual's task execution and can be classified into three categories

subjective measurements
using rating scales or questionnaires like the NASA-TLX questionniare

Task- and performance-based measurements
Analyzing performance interference when dealing with tasks and measuring outcome variables

Physiological measurements
Analyzing variances in participants' eye (pupil dilation, blink rate), heart (e-g- heart-rate variability), or brain activity (e.g. brain evoked potentials

25

Long-Term Memory

Comprises four key elements:

semantic memory:
* holds information related to meaning
* also includes olfactory, gustatory, haptic and auditory information

Episodic / autobiographical memory
* related to individual's personal memory

Procedural memory
* knowledge of how to do things (e.g. fry an egg)

Permastore
* Stores things you never forget


Capacity:
* effectively unlimited
* may last as long as individual's lifetime

26

Memory Processes

How do we remember?

Rehersal
* refreshing contents of working memory
* includs forgetting and replacement

Encoding
* Information stored in memory
* Chunking = organizing material into meaningful groups (chinks) => supports the encoding process

Retrieval
* Memories are recovered from long-term storage

Forgetting
* Recovering of memories fail

27

How do we forget?

Accesibility:
Refers to whether or not we are able to retrieve information stored in memory

Availability:
Depends on whether or not information is stored in memory

Working Memory
* Decay Theory: Memory fades with time
* Displacement Theory: Adding one item to memory fades out another

Long-Term Memory
* Disuse Theory: Forgetting because of non-use
* Interference Theory: New information gets in the way, makes it harder to remember older information (retroactive) or old information you already know blocks new information from coming in (proactive)
* Retrieval Failure Theory: Memories cannot be retrieved because we have not employed the correct retrieval cue

28

Affect

Affect is concerned with describing the whole range of emotions, feelings, moods, sentiment and other aspects of people that might be considered non-cognitive and non-conative. (Benyon, 2014)

29

Affective Computing

Concerns how computing devices can deal with emotions.
There are three basic aspects to consider:
■ Getting interactive systems to recognize human emotions and adapt accordingly
■ Getting interactive systems to synthesize emotions and hence to appear more engaging or desirable
■ Designing systems that elicit an emotional response from people or that allow people to express emotions

Emotions play a significant part in decision-making, social interaction, and most aspects of what we would describe as cognition (e.g., problem solving, thinking)

Facial action coding system (FACS):
■ Uses facial muscle movements to quantify emotions

30

Basic Emotions

Basic / primary emotions
* are common to everyone
* are irrespective to culture and individual differences
* appear and start quickly

Emotions have three components:
* Subjective experience or feelings
* Associated physiological changes (aware of some of these; little or no conscious control of them)
* Behavior evoked


ecstacy -> joy -> serenity
admiration -> trunst -> acceptance
terror -> fear -> apprehension
amazement -> surprise -> distraction
grief -> sadness -> pensiveness
loathing -> disgust -> boredom
rage -> anger -> annoyance
vigilance -> anticipation -> interest

31

Sensing emotions

Apparent to other people:
• Facial expression
• Voice intonation
• Gesture, movement
• Posture
• Pupillary dilation

Less apparent to others:
• Respiration
• Heart rate, pulse
• Temperature
• Electrodermal response
• perspiration
• Muscle action potentials
• Blood pressure

32

Hofstede’s (2011) Cultural Dimensions

Power distance:
degree of accepting inequality in distribution of power

Indulgence / restraint:
Enjoying live / having fun vs. regulating it via strict social norms

Time perspective:
long-term vs short-term planning

Uncertainty avoidance:
Openness towards change in life, work or known systems

Masculine / feminie:
Rules for men and women (patriarchal, matriarchal)

Individualistic / collectivistic:
Needs and goals of individuals vs. groups

33

Basic human values

Theory of Basic Human Values:
 Values are beliefs
 Values refer to desirable goals
 Values transcend specific actions and situations
 Values serve as standards or criteria
 Values are ordered by importance
 The relative importance of multiple values guides action

34

Personality - the Big Five

originated in the 1960s
■ Five orthogonal factors characterizing the personality of an individual
■ Measured as survey with various item sets

Openness
Conscientiosness
Agreeableness
Extraversion
Neuroticism