Foundations 2 Week 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Foundations 2 Week 4 Deck (9)
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Name 4 sites where ectopic pregnancy can occur.

Ectopic pregnancy can occur in a number of locations other than the normal site on the posterior uterine wall. By far the most common is in the fallopian tubes, however they can also occur in the abdominal cavity, on the ovary, in the cervix, etc.


Lecture: 56a Embryology I

Objective 1: Describe the sites of ectopic pregnancy and the anatomical basis of abdominal pregnancy


What 2 structures form the embryonic disc?

The epiblast (future ectoderm and floor of the amniotic cavity) and hypoblast (future endoderm and roof of the yolk sac).


Lecture: 56a Embryology I

Objective 4: Describe the origin and fate of the extraembryonic membranes (chorion, amnion, yolk sac, allantois)


Intra-Embryonic Mesoderm is derived from what structure in the developing embryo?

The primitive streak and primitive node give off cells that make up the intra-embryonic mesoderm.


Lecture: 57a Embryology II

Objective 3: Describe the origin and general fate of the following primordi: A. Primitive knot and primitive streak


Neurulation involves formation of the neural tube from what tissue?

A: Ectoderm

Lecture: 57a Embryogenesis II

Objective: Describe the origin and general fate of the following primordia: B. Neural tube and neural crest


Synopolydactyly is caused by mutations to what gene in humans?

A: HOX-D13


Lecture: 65a Development and Pattern Formation

Objective 4:  Describe the phenotypes caused by mutations in select patterning genes, specifically HOX-D13, Sonic Hedgehog, Patched1 and GLI3


A patient is brought to the ER after being hit by a truck while crossing a street on foot. She has an obvious contusion to her right chest around the the level of the 6th rib. Although she is conscious she complains of increasing pain in her left chest and worsening shortness of breath.  X-ray shows that she has a break to the lateral aspect of her 6th rib. What is most likely causing her worsening shortness of breath?

Worsening shortness of breath in the context of a rib break, most likely indicates pneumothorax. In this instance, a broken rib pierced the pleural sac, causing air to enter the pleural cavity and collapse the lung.


Lecture: 64a Overview of the Thoracic Cavity

Objective 3: Describe the relationship of the lung to its coelomic mesothelial coverings and the pleural cavity propoer.


What is the difference between malformations, deformations and disruptions?  Which category does Treacher Collins Syndrome fall into?

All are problems with morphogenesis. Malformations are due to poor formation of tissue. Deformations are due to unusual forces on normal tissues that cause them to deform. Disruptions are due to the breakdown of normal tissue.

Treacher Collins Syndrome causes cleft palate which is a malformation.


Lecture: 60a Congenital Abnormalities

Objective 1: Compare and contrast malformations, deformations, and disruptions.


What are the TORCH infectious agents? 

The infectious agents commonly known as TORCH agents are teratogens. They include:


Other (Syphilis)



Herpes simplex



Lecture: 61a Developmental Toxicology

Objective 2: List the “TORCH” agents


When is the “all-or-none” period during which teratogenic effects are most likely to be lethal?

The first 2 weeks after conception. However, most teratogens exert their effects in weeks 2-8 (during organogenesis).



Lecture: 61a Developmental Toxicology

Objective 1: Describe the roles of the following factors in teratogenicity… b. developmental stage of embryo/fetus