What does libertarianism say about free will?
We are free to make decisions and are morally responsible for our action, we CHOOSE how we act.
Who is connected to philosophical concepts of libertarianism?
What does Jean-Paul Sartre say about libertarianism?
People are unconditionally are as its part of human existence that we are “being of itself” (pour-soi) - “Man is condemned to be free”
Who is connected to scientific libertarianism?
What does Sirigu say about libertarianism?
She found that there is a part of the brain Calle parietal cortex that makes predictions about bodily movements using free floating DNA. She says that desire + decision to move comes from the brain
Who is connected to psychological libertarianism?
What does Rogers say about libertarianism?
People have to achieve free will through “self actualisation” which is were people get in touch with their feelings and acting on them. This Is obviously less possible for children as they are developing and still live with their parents
What are the 3 things Rogers said a child needs to flourish in their environment?
- Must be able to disclose and explore own ideas
- Child has to be given unconditional regard + love
- Child must be understood by parents + significant others
Implication of libertarianism - worth of human ideas of rightness and wrongness and moral value
libertarians say we are the mater of some of the acts we do, not all actions are the inevitable outcome of their circumstances so actions have moral value
Implication of libertarianism - the value of blaming moral agents for immoral acts
The issue with total freedom is the fact that they have to have total responsibility as well.
Implication of libertarianism - the usefulness of normative ethics
Normative ethics tries to act as a moral guide, Since libertarianism holds human beings responsible and having free will the use of normative ethics is clear.
What is the determinist argument
- Every event must have a cause
- Human actions are events
- Therefore, every human action is caused…
- So determinism must be true
What does philosophical determinism say?
Everything in the universe including human actions has a cause. Moral choice is just humans ignorance to the causes of actions
Who is connected to philosophical determinism?
What analogy does Locke use?
The locked room analogy
What does Locke say about philosophical determinism?
Builds on philosophical determinism but states we are not morally responsible for anything as we don’t choose what we do
What does scientific determinism say?
Human nature is not free but determined by their genetic formula, also said that human behaviour is innate and determined by genes, brain size and other biological attributes
Who is connected to Scientific Determinism?
What does Daniel Dennett say about scientific determinism?
He introduces “genetic fixity”, this idea states that the genes of parents inevitably determine the characteristics of the kids, so the behaviour of the child is determined at conception.
What does psychological determinism say?
Thoughts and feelings all stem from the outcome of cause and effect relationships that have 4 main factors to why we behave a certain way.
What are the 4 factors as part of the psychological argument?
Hereditary, Society, Culture, Environment
Who is connected to psychological determinism?
What is the experiment that connects Ivan Pavlov to psychological determinism?
What happened in classical conditioning experiment?
A dog was fed every time a bell rang, so when the bell rang the dog would begin to salivate which showed that the dog had been conditioned to salivate to the ringing of a bell
What’s a similar experiment to the classic conditioning?
“Little Albert” - A child was given a soft teddy bear but a loud noise would play when it was given to him, so that when he was given the toy and no sound the expectation of a sound with the toy created a fear of the toy
What does soft determinism think of free will?
That determinism is compatible with free will.
What are the two main claims of soft determinism?
- Determinism is true, every even is causally determined
2. We act freely when we are not constrained or coerced
Who are the two scholars are connected to soft determinism?
Thomas Hobbes + A J Ayer
What does Hobbes say about soft determinism?
There are two types of causes which allow for free will and determinism. External and Internal
What is an External Cause according to Hobbes
A famine occurs, people aren’t choosing not to eat they can’t either way therefore no free will
What is an Internal Cause according to Hobbes?
People fasting during a time of year when they have the option of food are people that have free will as they are making the choice
What does Ayer say about soft determinism?
If actions have no cause and its by accident people cannot be held responsible so he has two types of acts
What is a Forced Act according to Ayer?
Forced acts are not free, e.g being mind controlled, the person has no option other than to do as they are told therefore having no free will
What is a Caused Act according to Ayer?
Caused acts can be called free, ayer rejects that we are completely free everything has a cause. If there is no cause the action must have been purely random chance
What is predestination?
The belief that before we are born our whole lives have been decided and who goes to hell and heaven is already known
What is the role of original sin for Pelagius?
Predestination is rejected, humanity is good and unaffected by the fall. Just as young people diobey parents Adam and Eve disobeyed God so they maturity grew. We have sinful habits
What is the role of the original sin for Arminius?
Original sin wounded human will but didn’t destroy it, there is still the ability to repent and believe to relieve
What are Pelagius’ view on human maturity
Over time humans mature like a child would, they have to disobey their parents like we disobey god in order mature
Where does salvation come from according to Pelagius?
Salvation comes from the actions of a single person and is not decided by a higher power
What are Arminius views on predestination?
He denies predestination and thinks that everyone has the ability to get to heaven rather than just the elect
How are people allowed to have free will according to Arminius?
The Holy Spirit is placed within us all, this gives people the opportunity to break from sinful behaviour but not all do
How does Arminius see the election?
Elected people are the people who have achieved salvation, he thinks that the people who are elected are believers of Jesus
What is predestination?
The belief that everything has already happened and already been decided by God
What does St Augustine think of predestination?
“For God ordains eternal life for some and eternal damnation for others”
What does concupiscence mean?
Sinful physical desires
How did original sin effect humans according to St Augustine?
The role of concupiscence - The fall made our actions prone to sinful choices
What does Massa peccary mean?
A lump of sin
What is Massa paccati?
We are so infected by sin that we cannot rid ourselves of it, however god elects some who are able to get rid of it through baptism
What does Librium abituium mean?
The ability for humans to make free decisions and have essentially free human nature
What does Liberatas translate to?
Why don’t we have Liberatas?
Because of the role of concupiscence, we are unable to stop ourselves choosing sinful actions
How is there good in the world if all are sinful according to St Augustine?
God elects a select amount of people that can then do good therefore we need God’s grace in order to do good
Who decides salvation according to Calvin?
Humans are unable to decide their salvation therefore its God’s choice
What does each letter of TULIP mean and who is the scholar?
Calvin, Total Depravity - Unconditional Election - Limited Atonement - Irresistible Grace - Preservation of the Elect
What does the letter T in TULIP stand for and mean?
Total Depravation - humans are sinful and can’t save themselves
What does the letter U in TULIP stand for and mean?
Unconditional Election - God does not save you based on merit
What does the letter L in TULIP stand for and mean?
Limited Atonement - only the elect are saved
What does the letter I in TULIP stand for and mean?
Irresistible Grace - you cannot resist God’s grace
What does the letter P in TULIP stand for and mean?
Preservation of the elect - the elect cannot lose their salvation