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What is an example of the ratio decidendi?

Donoghue v. Stevenson: 'neighbour principle'.


What are legal norms?

Generally binding rules of conduct issued by state authority.


List and explain the seven components/principles of civil law.

- Concerned with the private rights we have as individuals.
- Aim: To return the person whose rights have been infringed to their original position.
- Action started by plaintiff suing the defendant.
- Consequence: Civil remedy such as damages or an injunction.
- Deals with matters such as family disputes, contracts, negligence etc.
- Standard of Proof: Balance of probabilities.
- Burden of Proof: Plaintiff.


List and explain the seven components/principles of criminal law.

- Concerned with the protection of the community of the whole.
- Aim: To punish those who have broken the law and deter others from breaking the law.
- Started by the police charging an individual who will be prosecuted by the state.
- Consequence: Sanction/punishment such as imprisonment or fine.
- Deals with crimes (Eg. Murder, rape, fraud, assault etc.).
- Standard of Proof: Beyond all reasonable doubt.
- Burden of Proof: Prosecution.