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Flashcards in From Firecracker Deck (34):
1

Waterhouse-Friderichsen

hemorrhagic adrenalitis from fulminant meningiococcemia (N. meningitis sepsis)

2

Liddle's syndrome

Autosomal dominant excess loss of potassium and reabsorption of sodium. HTN, Meta alkalosis. treat with amilioride (potassium sparing).

3

Apple green birefringence

Amyloidosis (Congo Red stain under polarized light)

4

Fanconi anemia

Most common inherited aplastic anemia, defects in non-homologous end-joining

5

Naegleria fowleri causes...?

primary amoebic meningoencephalitis

6

Acanthamoeba spp. causes...?

granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, most common in immunocompromised individuals (HIV)

7

Type 1 RTA

DCT failure to secret H and resorb K. a-intercalated cells.

8

Goodpasture syndrome

Collagen IV attack in lung and renal. type II hypersensitivity, IgG anti-GBM (against type IV collagen), attack glomeruli and alveoli, C3 positive in GBM, ANCA-negative.

9

scopolamine toxic side effects

mydriasis, cycloplegia, CNS anticholinergic toxidrome. It is an antimuscarinic like atropine.

10

4 drugs to treat CMV

ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir

11

Hartnup disease

Insufficient resorption of tryptophan. Autosomal recessive. Treat with high-protein diet + nicotinic acid. Symptoms of pellagra: Diarrhea, Demetia, Dermatitis. Neutral aminoaciduria.

12

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules pathomneonic for...?

Diabetic nephropathy

13

Potter sequence

Bilateral renal agenesis
Failure of fetal renal excretion
Oligohydramnios, resulting in decreased amniotic fluid
Multiple anomalies (Potter phenotype) and early death

14

B1 blockers on the kidney?

Reduce renin release, thereby reducing angiotensin II, causing vasodilation

15

Reed-Sternberg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma. These are bi-nucleated "owl eye" B cells. Necessary but not sufficient for diagnosis. Can release cytokines which cause minimal change disease.

16

Paragonimus is...?

Lung fluke

17

Alport syndrome

defective collagen IV assembly. Ocular (lens and cornea), nephritic, hearing loss. Basketweave GBM, red cell casts.

18

Minoxidil

Prodrug, sulfated by liver, causes vasodilation

19

Furosemide (Lasix) toxicity mnemonic

OHHH DANG

20

Neuroblastoma oncogene?

N-myc

21

Congenital hypothyroidism

Cretinism:
Poor brain development
Pot-bellied
Pale
Puffy-faced
Protruding umbilicus
Protuberant tongue
Enlarged fontanelle, delayed dentition, retarded bone age

22

adrenoleukodystrophy

Very long chain fatty acid buildup in CNS, adrenals, and testes. X-linked, presents in young men.

23

Dactinomycin

Used in young kids to treat: Ewing sarcoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms

24

Dexrazoxane

iron chelator used to prevent cardiotoxicity from doxorubicin or daunorubucin

25

DiGeorge Syndrome

3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch failure. Congenital t-cell deficiency, cleft palate, often fatal cardiac defects. No thymus or parathyroid glands, hypocalcemic. 22q11.2

26

4 types of thyroid carcinoma

Papillary
Follicular
Medullary
Anaplastic

27

Bartter syndrome

Autosomal recessive, defect in Na/K/Cl cotransporter in thick ascending limb, causes salt and water wasting

28

San Joaquin Valley Fever

Coccidiomycosis -- "desert rheumatism"

29

tetrodotoxin

pufferfish venom, Na channel blocker

30

Brugada syndrome

genetic disorder of cardiac Na channels, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Autosomal dominant, Asian males. St elevation, negative T-wave. Treat with an implanted defibrillator.

31

Fitz-Hugh Curtis syndrome

perihepatitis, infection of the liver capsule and peritoneal surfaces of the anterior right upper quadrant from Neisseria and Chlamydia spp. Acute symptoms manifest as a patchy purulent and fibrinous exudate known as “violin string” adhesions.

32

Floroquinolones target...?

Topoisomerase II and IV. Enters via porins.

33

Lupus affiliated drugs

SHIPP-E: Sulfa drugs, Hydralazine, Isoniazid, Procainamide, Phenytoin, Etanercept

34

Ezetemibe

LDL reducer, inhibits chol abs in intestine. Hepatotx and diarrhea