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Flashcards in Fund. Of Nutrition Deck (27):
1

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Indirect method of determining a person’s “fatness” based on their weight and height.

BMI = Weight (kg) / (Height (m) )^2

BMI < 18.5 = underweight , 18.5 - 25 = healthy , 25 - 30 = overweight , >30 = Obese

2

Food Pyramid guidelines

Get 10-15% calories from PROTEIN
25-35 % calories from FAT
And the rest from CARBS
-emphasize unprocessed carbs, whole grains, fruits/veggies

3

Essential Amino Acids

AAs (10) obtained from the diet, not able to de novo synthesize.

Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys

Mnemonic: PVT TIM HALL

4

Non-essential AA

The AA’s (10) that can be synthesized de novo.

Alanine, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glycine, Cystine, Aspartate, Glutamine, Tyr, Proline, Serine

Mnemonic: Almost All Girls Go Crazy After Getting Taken Prom Shopping

5

Duodenum

Proximal small intestine.

Fat, sugars, Iron, peptides/AA, Folate, Calcium, water, electrolytes.

6

Jejunum

Middle small intestine

Sugars, peptides/AA, calcium, water, electrolytes. Same as duodenum but no iron/folate

7

Ileum

Distal small intestine

Bile acids, Vitamin B12, water, electrolytes

8

Hepatic Portal System

Digested products absorbed into HPS to be directed toward the liver

9

Crohn Disease

Autoimmune Disease causing chronic inflammation/damage to bowel mucosa. Distal ileum most frequently affected. There is malabsorption in the affected area causing nutritional deficiency —> Bile acid and vitamin B12 are not taken up. Malabsorption of fat and Vitamin B12 deficiency.

10

K+ and Mg2+ food source

Meats, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes

11

Na+ food source

Food of animal origin, and in salt.

12

Ca2+ food source

Milk/dairy products, soy-beans, dark green vegetables (kale, broccoli, spinach).

13

Phosphate food source

Dairy products, wheat, bran, beans, walnuts

14

Lipid soluble Vitamins

Retinol (A), Retinoic Acid (A), Calcitriol (D), Vitamin K, Vitamin E

Mnemonic: ADEK

15

Water soluble vitamins

Thiamine (B1) , Riboflavin (B2) , Niacin (B3) , Pantothenic Acid (B5) , Pyridoxine (B6) , Biotin (B7) , Folic Acid (B9) , Cobalamin (B12) , Ascorbate (C)

B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and C

16

Thiamine (B1)

Coenzyme form: Thiamine pyrophosphate
-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (glycolysis, TCA)
- a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA)
-Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (MSUD)

Deficiency from: Alcoholism —-> interferes with absorption

Clinical Manifestations: Wernick’s, Korsakoff’s, Dry/wet beriberi

17

Riboflavin (B2)

Coenzyme forms: FAD/FMN
-Coenzyme for several dehydrogenases
-involved in oxidation/reduction reactions

Deficiency from poor diet or malabsorption syndromes

Clinical manifestations: Corneal neovascularization, magenta-colored tongue

18

Niacin (B3)

Coenzyme forms: NAD(H) and NADP(H)
-Coenyzme for many dehydrogenases
-Synthesized from Tryptophan

Deficiency from:
-Hartnups disease —> Tryptophan deficiency —> Niacin Deficiency
-Malnutrition —> Pellegra (Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis, Death)

19

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

Synthesis of coenzyme A:
-Pyruvate —> TCA cycle
- a-ketoglutarate —-> Succinyl-CoA
- Fatty acid metabolism
-Cholesterol Synthesis

Required for acylation and acetylation - enzyme movement, activation, deactivation.

Deficiency from extreme starvation

Dermatitis, numbness, hypoglycemia

20

Pyridoxine (B6)

Converted to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the body - Coenzyme for Transaminases

Deficiency from isoniazid therapy

Sideroblastic anemia (iron not incorporated in heme), stomatitis, convulsions

21

Biotin (B7)

Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
-Gluconeogenesis: Pyruvate Carboxylase (Pyruvate —> Oxalo)
-Fatty acid synthesis: Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (acetyl —> malonyl)
-Odd carbon FA synthesis: Propionyl CoA carboxylase

Deficiency from excessive consumption of raw eggs (contain avidin, biotin-binding protein)

Rashes, bowel inflammation, muscle pain

22

Folic Acid (B9)

Coenzyme form: Tetrahydrofolate
-Thymidylate synthase (pyramiding synthesis)

Deficiency from
-alcoholism and pregnancy. Neural tube defect in pregnancy.
-Side effect of certain drugs: methotrexate, sulfonamides

Homocysteinemia, macrocytic megaloblastic anemia

23

Cobalamin (B12)

Converted to coenzyme methyl- or deoxyadenosyl cobalamin.
-Homocysteine methyltransferase (homocysteine —> methionine)

Deficiency from:
-Pernicious anemia
-Chronic pancreatitis
-long-term vegetarian diet

Megaloblastic anemia, neuropathies, homocysteinemia

24

Ascorbate (Vitamin C)

Cofactor for:
-Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine —> norepinephrine)
- Prolyl and Lysyl hydroxylases (collagen synthesis)

Enhances Fe absorption and is an antioxidant

Dietary deficiency: devoid of citrus fruits and green vegetables

Scurvy: poor wound healing, easy bruising, bleeding gums, anemia

25

Vitamin A

Main function: Vision and maintenance of epithelium.

Structures: Retinol, Retinoic Acid, Retinal

Epithelial Maintenance: Retinol/Retinoic acid —> bind to intracellular receptor —> Regulate transcription through specific response elements —> normal differentiation of epithelial cells

Deficiency from:
-Extreme malnutrition
-Fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis

Night blindness, frequent infections, follicular hyperkeratosis

26

Vitamin A and vision

-Transfers opsin in rod cells to rhodopsin.
-In dark, Glutamate is released.
- Glutamate —> inhibits bipolar cells

Light —> activation of enzyme that decreases cGMP —> stop glutamate release —> bipolar cell stimulation —> signal initiation

Deficiency: Night blindness

27

Vitamin D

Forms:
-Vitamin D3: sun exposure or Vit D-fortified milk
- Calcifediol: Storage form in liver
- Calcitriol: active vitamin D, formed in kidney in response to parathyroid hormone function (when blood Ca2+ increases)

Function:
-Kidney: Stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ and secretion of phosphate
-Bone: osteoclast activation —> bone resorption

Rickets, osetomalacia