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Flashcards in Fund. Of Nutrition Deck (27):

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Indirect method of determining a person’s “fatness” based on their weight and height.

BMI = Weight (kg) / (Height (m) )^2

BMI < 18.5 = underweight , 18.5 - 25 = healthy , 25 - 30 = overweight , >30 = Obese


Food Pyramid guidelines

Get 10-15% calories from PROTEIN
25-35 % calories from FAT
And the rest from CARBS
-emphasize unprocessed carbs, whole grains, fruits/veggies


Essential Amino Acids

AAs (10) obtained from the diet, not able to de novo synthesize.

Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys

Mnemonic: PVT TIM HALL


Non-essential AA

The AA’s (10) that can be synthesized de novo.

Alanine, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glycine, Cystine, Aspartate, Glutamine, Tyr, Proline, Serine

Mnemonic: Almost All Girls Go Crazy After Getting Taken Prom Shopping



Proximal small intestine.

Fat, sugars, Iron, peptides/AA, Folate, Calcium, water, electrolytes.



Middle small intestine

Sugars, peptides/AA, calcium, water, electrolytes. Same as duodenum but no iron/folate



Distal small intestine

Bile acids, Vitamin B12, water, electrolytes


Hepatic Portal System

Digested products absorbed into HPS to be directed toward the liver


Crohn Disease

Autoimmune Disease causing chronic inflammation/damage to bowel mucosa. Distal ileum most frequently affected. There is malabsorption in the affected area causing nutritional deficiency —> Bile acid and vitamin B12 are not taken up. Malabsorption of fat and Vitamin B12 deficiency.


K+ and Mg2+ food source

Meats, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes


Na+ food source

Food of animal origin, and in salt.


Ca2+ food source

Milk/dairy products, soy-beans, dark green vegetables (kale, broccoli, spinach).


Phosphate food source

Dairy products, wheat, bran, beans, walnuts


Lipid soluble Vitamins

Retinol (A), Retinoic Acid (A), Calcitriol (D), Vitamin K, Vitamin E

Mnemonic: ADEK


Water soluble vitamins

Thiamine (B1) , Riboflavin (B2) , Niacin (B3) , Pantothenic Acid (B5) , Pyridoxine (B6) , Biotin (B7) , Folic Acid (B9) , Cobalamin (B12) , Ascorbate (C)

B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and C


Thiamine (B1)

Coenzyme form: Thiamine pyrophosphate
-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (glycolysis, TCA)
- a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA)
-Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (MSUD)

Deficiency from: Alcoholism —-> interferes with absorption

Clinical Manifestations: Wernick’s, Korsakoff’s, Dry/wet beriberi


Riboflavin (B2)

Coenzyme forms: FAD/FMN
-Coenzyme for several dehydrogenases
-involved in oxidation/reduction reactions

Deficiency from poor diet or malabsorption syndromes

Clinical manifestations: Corneal neovascularization, magenta-colored tongue


Niacin (B3)

Coenzyme forms: NAD(H) and NADP(H)
-Coenyzme for many dehydrogenases
-Synthesized from Tryptophan

Deficiency from:
-Hartnups disease —> Tryptophan deficiency —> Niacin Deficiency
-Malnutrition —> Pellegra (Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis, Death)


Pantothenic Acid (B5)

Synthesis of coenzyme A:
-Pyruvate —> TCA cycle
- a-ketoglutarate —-> Succinyl-CoA
- Fatty acid metabolism
-Cholesterol Synthesis

Required for acylation and acetylation - enzyme movement, activation, deactivation.

Deficiency from extreme starvation

Dermatitis, numbness, hypoglycemia


Pyridoxine (B6)

Converted to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the body - Coenzyme for Transaminases

Deficiency from isoniazid therapy

Sideroblastic anemia (iron not incorporated in heme), stomatitis, convulsions


Biotin (B7)

Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
-Gluconeogenesis: Pyruvate Carboxylase (Pyruvate —> Oxalo)
-Fatty acid synthesis: Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (acetyl —> malonyl)
-Odd carbon FA synthesis: Propionyl CoA carboxylase

Deficiency from excessive consumption of raw eggs (contain avidin, biotin-binding protein)

Rashes, bowel inflammation, muscle pain


Folic Acid (B9)

Coenzyme form: Tetrahydrofolate
-Thymidylate synthase (pyramiding synthesis)

Deficiency from
-alcoholism and pregnancy. Neural tube defect in pregnancy.
-Side effect of certain drugs: methotrexate, sulfonamides

Homocysteinemia, macrocytic megaloblastic anemia


Cobalamin (B12)

Converted to coenzyme methyl- or deoxyadenosyl cobalamin.
-Homocysteine methyltransferase (homocysteine —> methionine)

Deficiency from:
-Pernicious anemia
-Chronic pancreatitis
-long-term vegetarian diet

Megaloblastic anemia, neuropathies, homocysteinemia


Ascorbate (Vitamin C)

Cofactor for:
-Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine —> norepinephrine)
- Prolyl and Lysyl hydroxylases (collagen synthesis)

Enhances Fe absorption and is an antioxidant

Dietary deficiency: devoid of citrus fruits and green vegetables

Scurvy: poor wound healing, easy bruising, bleeding gums, anemia


Vitamin A

Main function: Vision and maintenance of epithelium.

Structures: Retinol, Retinoic Acid, Retinal

Epithelial Maintenance: Retinol/Retinoic acid —> bind to intracellular receptor —> Regulate transcription through specific response elements —> normal differentiation of epithelial cells

Deficiency from:
-Extreme malnutrition
-Fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis

Night blindness, frequent infections, follicular hyperkeratosis


Vitamin A and vision

-Transfers opsin in rod cells to rhodopsin.
-In dark, Glutamate is released.
- Glutamate —> inhibits bipolar cells

Light —> activation of enzyme that decreases cGMP —> stop glutamate release —> bipolar cell stimulation —> signal initiation

Deficiency: Night blindness


Vitamin D

-Vitamin D3: sun exposure or Vit D-fortified milk
- Calcifediol: Storage form in liver
- Calcitriol: active vitamin D, formed in kidney in response to parathyroid hormone function (when blood Ca2+ increases)

-Kidney: Stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ and secretion of phosphate
-Bone: osteoclast activation —> bone resorption

Rickets, osetomalacia