Flashcards in Fund. Of Nutrition Deck (27):
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Indirect method of determining a person’s “fatness” based on their weight and height.
BMI = Weight (kg) / (Height (m) )^2
BMI < 18.5 = underweight , 18.5 - 25 = healthy , 25 - 30 = overweight , >30 = Obese
Food Pyramid guidelines
Get 10-15% calories from PROTEIN
25-35 % calories from FAT
And the rest from CARBS
-emphasize unprocessed carbs, whole grains, fruits/veggies
Essential Amino Acids
AAs (10) obtained from the diet, not able to de novo synthesize.
Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Arg, Leu, Lys
Mnemonic: PVT TIM HALL
The AA’s (10) that can be synthesized de novo.
Alanine, Asparagine, Glutamate, Glycine, Cystine, Aspartate, Glutamine, Tyr, Proline, Serine
Mnemonic: Almost All Girls Go Crazy After Getting Taken Prom Shopping
Proximal small intestine.
Fat, sugars, Iron, peptides/AA, Folate, Calcium, water, electrolytes.
Middle small intestine
Sugars, peptides/AA, calcium, water, electrolytes. Same as duodenum but no iron/folate
Distal small intestine
Bile acids, Vitamin B12, water, electrolytes
Hepatic Portal System
Digested products absorbed into HPS to be directed toward the liver
Autoimmune Disease causing chronic inflammation/damage to bowel mucosa. Distal ileum most frequently affected. There is malabsorption in the affected area causing nutritional deficiency —> Bile acid and vitamin B12 are not taken up. Malabsorption of fat and Vitamin B12 deficiency.
K+ and Mg2+ food source
Meats, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes
Na+ food source
Food of animal origin, and in salt.
Ca2+ food source
Milk/dairy products, soy-beans, dark green vegetables (kale, broccoli, spinach).
Phosphate food source
Dairy products, wheat, bran, beans, walnuts
Lipid soluble Vitamins
Retinol (A), Retinoic Acid (A), Calcitriol (D), Vitamin K, Vitamin E
Water soluble vitamins
Thiamine (B1) , Riboflavin (B2) , Niacin (B3) , Pantothenic Acid (B5) , Pyridoxine (B6) , Biotin (B7) , Folic Acid (B9) , Cobalamin (B12) , Ascorbate (C)
B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 and C
Coenzyme form: Thiamine pyrophosphate
-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (glycolysis, TCA)
- a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA)
-Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (MSUD)
Deficiency from: Alcoholism —-> interferes with absorption
Clinical Manifestations: Wernick’s, Korsakoff’s, Dry/wet beriberi
Coenzyme forms: FAD/FMN
-Coenzyme for several dehydrogenases
-involved in oxidation/reduction reactions
Deficiency from poor diet or malabsorption syndromes
Clinical manifestations: Corneal neovascularization, magenta-colored tongue
Coenzyme forms: NAD(H) and NADP(H)
-Coenyzme for many dehydrogenases
-Synthesized from Tryptophan
-Hartnups disease —> Tryptophan deficiency —> Niacin Deficiency
-Malnutrition —> Pellegra (Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis, Death)
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
Synthesis of coenzyme A:
-Pyruvate —> TCA cycle
- a-ketoglutarate —-> Succinyl-CoA
- Fatty acid metabolism
Required for acylation and acetylation - enzyme movement, activation, deactivation.
Deficiency from extreme starvation
Dermatitis, numbness, hypoglycemia
Converted to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in the body - Coenzyme for Transaminases
Deficiency from isoniazid therapy
Sideroblastic anemia (iron not incorporated in heme), stomatitis, convulsions
Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes
-Gluconeogenesis: Pyruvate Carboxylase (Pyruvate —> Oxalo)
-Fatty acid synthesis: Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (acetyl —> malonyl)
-Odd carbon FA synthesis: Propionyl CoA carboxylase
Deficiency from excessive consumption of raw eggs (contain avidin, biotin-binding protein)
Rashes, bowel inflammation, muscle pain
Folic Acid (B9)
Coenzyme form: Tetrahydrofolate
-Thymidylate synthase (pyramiding synthesis)
-alcoholism and pregnancy. Neural tube defect in pregnancy.
-Side effect of certain drugs: methotrexate, sulfonamides
Homocysteinemia, macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
Converted to coenzyme methyl- or deoxyadenosyl cobalamin.
-Homocysteine methyltransferase (homocysteine —> methionine)
-long-term vegetarian diet
Megaloblastic anemia, neuropathies, homocysteinemia
Ascorbate (Vitamin C)
-Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine —> norepinephrine)
- Prolyl and Lysyl hydroxylases (collagen synthesis)
Enhances Fe absorption and is an antioxidant
Dietary deficiency: devoid of citrus fruits and green vegetables
Scurvy: poor wound healing, easy bruising, bleeding gums, anemia
Main function: Vision and maintenance of epithelium.
Structures: Retinol, Retinoic Acid, Retinal
Epithelial Maintenance: Retinol/Retinoic acid —> bind to intracellular receptor —> Regulate transcription through specific response elements —> normal differentiation of epithelial cells
-Fat malabsorption and liver cirrhosis
Night blindness, frequent infections, follicular hyperkeratosis
Vitamin A and vision
-Transfers opsin in rod cells to rhodopsin.
-In dark, Glutamate is released.
- Glutamate —> inhibits bipolar cells
Light —> activation of enzyme that decreases cGMP —> stop glutamate release —> bipolar cell stimulation —> signal initiation
Deficiency: Night blindness