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Flashcards in Fundamentals Deck (65):
1

A mixing study (adding normal plasma to pt's plasma) that corrects the PTT means there is ...

no coagulation factor inhibitor.

1

Patients with a non-spontaneous venous thromboembolism and an inherited thrombophilia are usually continued on oral anticoagulants for ... at an INR of 2.0 to 3.0.

six months

1

A type ... error is the probability of incorrectly concluding that there is a statistically significant difference in a dataset. Alpha is the number after a p-value. Thus, a statistically significant difference reported as p

I (also known as alpha)

1

A type ... error is the probability of incorrectly concluding that there was no statistically significant difference in a dataset. This error often reflects insufficient power of the study.

II (also known as beta)

2

Harmonic imaging echocardiography causes loss of detail for evaluation of...

fine valvular structures.

3

The ... of a clinical finding/test represents the probability of that finding in patients with the disease of interest in relation with the probability of that finding in patients without the condition.

positive likelihood ratio

4

The emitted sound wave by the echo transducer is described as having an initial or... frequency.

fundamental

5

The molecular mechanism of interconnecting vessels developing into small arteries is called... .

arteriogenesis

6

The molecular mechanism of capillaries formation is called... .

angiogenesis

7

... connects the sinoatrial node with the AV node.

crista terminalis

8

The phase 0 of the myocardial cell action potential is dependent on the...

Ca2+ current.

9

Image resolution is... with higher frequencies.

greater

10

Normal... appears as a red encoded signal moving from the mitral orifice along the lateral wall to the left ventricular apex, where it reverses course and appears as a blue encoded signal along the septum.

mitral inflow

11

Low-frequency ultrasound provides a... depth of penetration than does high-frequency ultrasound.

greater

12

The right atrium is more... than the left atrium.

trabeculated

13

In the short-axis projections at the level of the mitral valve and below,... appears as a more trabeculated crescent-shaped structure.

RV

14

In the normal heart under physiological circumstances, the maximum velocity typically encountered is less than...

1.5 m/sec.

15

... is the time in milliseconds required for the peak pressure gradient to decline to one half of its original value.

The pressure half-time (P1/2t)

16

... evaluation of annular motion has shown tremendous promise for the evaluation of diastolic function; the early annular velocity (Ea) exceeds late annular velocity (Aa) in a manner similar to the mitral valve E/A.

Doppler

17

Although... Doppler imaging provides less precise localization of gradients, it is not constrained by velocity limits and hence can record higher velocities.

continuous-wave

18

When the Doppler flow is visualized as blue color it is directed... the transducer.

away from

19

When the Doppler flow is visualized as red color it is directed... the transducer.

towards

20

The hallmark of... on two-dimensional echocardiography is thickening and restriction of motion of the valve leaflets, with the predominant pathological process being fibrosis and fusion of the leaflet tips and proximal chordae.

mitral stenosis

21

The Bernoulli equation in its simplest form states that deltaP (the pressure gradient across a restrictive orifice) is..., where V is the peak instantaneous velocity of flow through the restrictive orifice.

4V^2

22

The imaging beam is emitted as a series of pulses, each of which contains several cycles of ultrasound and the number of pulses emitted per second is the...

pulse repetition frequency.

23

Image resolution is... with low frequencies.

less

24

... image resolution refers to the ability to separate objects that fall in the direction of ultrasound propagation.

Axial

25

... resolution refers to the ability to determine separation in time of events by ultrasound.

Temporal

26

... Doppler allows determination of direction and flow velocity at a precise point within the cardiac system.

Pulsed

27

Pulsed Doppler is limited in its maximum detectable velocity by the...

Nyquist limit.

28

... is defined as one-half of the pulse repetition frequency (typically 1.5 to 2 m/sec).

The Nyquist limit

29

The underlying principle of the... equation is that the volume of flow entering a channel must equal the volume of flow exiting that channel.

continuity

30

From a clinical standpoint, the ventricular diastole has four phases, phase 1 being...

isovolumic relaxation.

31

The... is the time-dependent decrease of stress in the presence of a constant length.

stress relaxation

32

The... is the time-dependent lengthening of a material in the presence of a constant force.

creep

33

The... is the change in volume per change in pressure (dV/dP).

compliance or distensibility

34

From a clinical standpoint, the ventricular diastole has four phases, phase 2 being...

early (rapid) diastolic filling.

35

From a clinical standpoint, the ventricular diastole has four phases, phase 3 being...

slow ventricular filling (diastasis).

36

The... is the mean systolic blood pressure multiplied by stroke volume.

stroke work

37

The... is defined as force per area in cardiology.

stress (pressure in physics)

38

The... is the pressure per volume change (dP/dV). Ventricular… is a measure for changes of the ventricle as a whole; myocardial… is a measure for changes of the myocardium itself.

stiffness

39

From a clinical standpoint, the ventricular diastole has four phases, phase 4 being...

atrial filling.

40

A second remnant that is occasionally seen attached to the coronary sinus is known as... and consists of a fine filamentous membrane with multiple perforations.

the Chiari network

41

... is a linear echo arising from the junction of the right atrium and inferior vena cava coursing into the body of the right atrium, and has a highly mobile motion, mimicking valvular motion.

The Eustachian valve

42

In the embryo, a continuous membrane courses from the IVC to the coronary sinus to direct oxygenated blood from the IVC directly across the foramen ovale:... ; during cardiac development, this membrane regresses.

the Eustachian valve

43

... is a structure typically visualized only with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).

The right atrial appendage

44

... is optimally visualized with TEE, where it has the appearance of a "dog's ear."

The left atrial appendage

45

In PARASTERNAL LONG-AXIS view, anterior to the aorta, a portion of the... is visualized.

right ventricular outflow tract

46

... appears as a muscle density structure traversing the apex of the right ventricle; this is a normal anatomical structure that should not be confused with a pathological process.

The moderator band

47

... calculations are based on hydraulic principles of fluid flow, as the ratio of the decrease in pressure between two points in a vascular segment and the blood flow through the segment.

Vascular resistance

48

In patients with ..., thermodilution tends to overestimate the cardiac output.

low outputs (especially <2.5 liter/min)

49

The advantage of the ... is that it is the most accurate method in patients with low cardiac output and thus is preferred over the thermodilution method in these circumstances.

Fick method

50

The x descent is interrupted by the... , which is a small positive deflection caused by protrusion of the closed tricuspid valve into the right atrium.

c wave

51

The pulmonary vascular resistance is derived from the following equation: PVR = ... where PAm and LAm are the pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures, respectively and Qp is the pulmonary blood flow.

80(PAm - LAm )/Qp

52

The thermodilution method has a significant error in patients with ...

severe tricuspid regurgitation or CO<2.5L/min.

53

... follows the a wave and represents relaxation of the atrium and downward pulling of the tricuspid annulus by right ventricular contraction.

The x descent

54

... is inversely related to the area under a thermodilution curve, plotted as a function of temperature versus time, with a smaller area indicative of a higher value.

The cardiac output

55

Systemic vascular resistance in absolute units is calculated using the following equation: SVR = ... where Aom and RAm are the mean pressures (in mm Hg) in the aorta and right atrium, respectively, and Qs is the systemic cardiac output (in liter/min).

80(Aom - RAm )/Qs

56

The total peripheral resistance (TPR) is TPR = ... where Aom is the mean pressures (in mmHg) in the aorta.

80(Aom )/Qs

57

If the difference in oxygen saturation between the SVC and the pulmonary artery is >... , a left-to-right shunt may be present.

8%

58

..., the functional ability of HDL to accept cholesterol as part of reverse cholesterol transport, may be a more important biomarker of risk than HDL alone.

HDL cholesterol efflux capacity

59

These results suggest that adding MV repair to CABG in patients with moderate MR reduces MR at 12 months, but does not ...

improve reverse LV remodeling or improve survival or quality of life.

60

The Japanese Primary Prevention Project was a multicenter, open-label trial to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in older patients with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors. Daily aspirin... (did/did not) lower risk for adverse cardiovascular events

did not

61

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been defined by consensus as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of ... mm Hg or in diastolic blood pressure of ... mm Hg within 3 minutes after standing.

≥20
≥10

62

This study has addressed whether dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEA-S) could predict major coronary heart disease (CHD) or cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) events in 2416 elderly men participating in the prospective, population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study in Sweden (age range, 69–81).

they predict an increased risk for CHD, but not CBVD, events in elderly men