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Flashcards in Fundamentals Deck (33):
1

What drugs do to the body

Pharmacodynamics

2

What the body does to drugs and how fast it does it (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion)

Pharmacokinetics

3

absorption and distribution of drugs is determined by:

1) Drug molecular size
2) Drug solubility
3) Conditions at site of tissues to be penetrated by drug (e.g. inflamm.)

4

The ________ portion of the membrane is the most difficult portion for a drug to penetrate

lipid

**Drugs that are lipid soluble (non-polar) are able to penetrate membranes more rapidly than those that are polar

5

Drugs that activate receptors

agonists

6

Drugs that block receptors

antagonists

7

dose required to produce minimum response

potency

8

maximum magnitude of response

efficacy

9

margin of safety

difference between toxic and effective dose

10

therapeutic index

ratio of toxic and effective dose (toxic divided by effective)

11

duration of action

amount of time that drug acts

12

half-life

time required for 1/2 of drug to be eliminated

13

Most drug/receptor bonds are ___________ bonds

reversible ionic

14

Measures of desirable drug actions include:

Efficacy and Potency

15

When is a drug considered toxic?

When the effective dose and lethal dose are similar

16

3 ways drug actions are ended

redistribution, metabolism, excretion

17

the drug is carried away from the site of action, usually by blood flow

redistribution

18

the drug is modified to make it less active or more readily excreted

metabolism

19

the drug is (or its metabolite) is removed from the body

excretion

20

The __________ is the major organ of drug excretion

kidney

21

What might happen to a patient with renal pathology?

build up of drugs in the body b/c they're not being excreted - the accumulated drugs can cause toxic effects

22

The ________ is the major organ for metabolizing drugs

liver

**this makes it less active and/or more excretable by the kidney

23

first-pass metabolism

a swallowed drug goes into the digestive system and then hepatic system before entering circulation to the rest of the body - this great reduces the bioavailability of the drug

24

enterohepatic cycle

refers to the cycle of biliary contents, drugs, or other substances from the liver to the bile, and then into the small intestines...ultimately back to the liver and so on. This is often associated with multiple peaks and a longer half-life

25

_________ occurs in lipophilic ER of liver and other cells, and features redox rxn that polarize drug molecule, making them more excretable

Phase I Metabolism

26

rate limiting rxn of phase I metabolism require

cytochrome P450 enzyme

(CYP)

27

In __________ endogenous molecules are coupled with parent drugs or metabolites via transferase enzymes, resulting in conjugates that are larger and more excretable

Phase II Metabolism

28

Schedule I drugs

1) High potential for abuse, severe physical and psychological dependence
2) No accepted medical use
3) Use for research only
4) Not to be prescribed, unsafe for tx

29

Schedule II drugs

1) High potential for abuse, severe physical and psychological dependence
2) Acceptable medical uses, w/ restrictions
3) Dispensed by Rx only
4) No refills w/out new written Rx from doc

30

Schedule III drugs

1) moderate potential for abuse, high psychological dependence, low physical dependence
2) acceptable medical uses
3) by Rx only; may be refilled 5X in 6 mo. if authorized by doc

31

Schedule IV drugs

1) lower potential for abuse than Sched. III; limited psychological and physical dependence
2) Acceptable medical uses
3) by Rx only; may be refilled 5X in 6 mo. if authorized by physician

32

Schedule V drugs

1) low potential for abuse
2) acceptable medical uses
3) OTC narcotic drugs, but sold only by registered pharmacists; buyer must be 18 y/o and show ID

33

Schedule VI drugs

1) medical marijuana
2) needs Rx

*only some states uses Sched. VI category