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Flashcards in Fundamentals of anaesthetics Deck (21)
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1

Are the following general, topical or regional?

a) Spinal anaesthesia?
b) EMLA skin cream?
c) brachial plexus block

a) regional
b) local
c) regional

2

What are the 3 elements to anaesthesia? (A's)

Amnesia
Analgesia
Akinesis

3

What induction agent should be used for a patient requiring a burn dressing change?

Ketamine: useful for single short procedures.

4

Ketamine:
Dose.
Uses/advanatges
Unwanted affects

a) 1-1.5mg/kg

Use
- dissociative anaesthesia
- slow onset (90 secs)
- Cardiostable (rise in HR/BP
- Bronchodilation
- Good analgesic properties

Unwanted:
- emergence phenomenon (hallucinations)

5

Which induction agent is best used for a patient undergoing an GA operation with a laryngeal masked airway?

Propofol

6

What does of propofol should be used?

How often used?

Benefits?

Unwanted effects

1.5-2.5mg

Commonly used (95%)

-Excellent suppression of airway reflexes (putting in LMA)

- Drop in HR and BP
- Pain on injection
- Myoclonus

7

What induction agent can be used for a patient with a history of heart failure requires a general anaesthetic?

Etomidate (haemodynamically stable)

8

Etomidate:

Dose:

Use:

Unwanted effects

0.5mg/kg

- Haemodynamically stable use for heart conditions
- Rapid onset
- Low incidence of hypersensitivity

Unwanted:
- Pain on injection
- Adreno-corticol suppression > lower cortisol > lower BP > never use for septic shock. Cortisol low for 72 hours.
- High incidence of PONV

9

What induction agent do you use for a patient with intestinal obstruction requires an emergency laparotomy?

Thiopentone (used for rapid sequence induction)

10

Thiopentone
Dose

Use

Unwanted effects

Dose) 4-5mg/kg

Use)
- Rapid Sequence Induction (faster than propofol
- Anti-epileptic properties and protect brain

Unwanted)
- Drops BP and rise in HR
- No analgesic property
- Rash/bronchospasm
- Hangover effect
CI in prophyria

11

All inhalation agents end in what?

-flurane

12

Which inhalation agent is used for long operations as rapid onset and offset.

Desflurane

13

Which inhalation agent is commonly used for paediatrics?

Sevoflurane

14

Which inhalation agent is best for organ retrieval from a donor?

Isoflurane

15

Which two inhalation agents have low potency and low solubiluity?

Sevoflurane and desflurane

16

Name a depolarising muscle relaxant.

Suxamethonium

17

What problems are associated with suxamethonium

Malignant hyperthermia
Muscle pain
Fasiculations
Hyperkalaemia > arrythymias
Rise ICP

18

When is it used?

Rapid Sequence induction.

19

What drugs are used to reverse anti-muscarinics?

Neostigmine & Glycopyrrolate

20

Which drug do you use if BP and HR are low?

How does it work

Ephedrine

Rises HR which increases BP

21

Which drug(s) do you use when BP is low but heart rate is high.

How do they work

Phenylepherine
Metaraminol

Vasoconstriction increases BP which decreases HR.