Flashcards in Fungal Infections Deck (19):
What are the two main phyla of fungi?
Which fungus out of the basidiomycetes causes the largest burden of disease?
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatii
Causes cryptococcal meningitis
What three types of illness do fungi cause?
A toxic reaction to the ingestion/inhalation of toxins produced by fungi
What is known as the most carcinogenic natural compounds and what produces it?
Aflatoxin – Aspergillus flavus
Disease caused by fungi that is classified based on the level of tissue affected
What are the four types of mycosis?
What are superficial mycoses? Give some examples.
Mycoses that affect the skin and hair
No tissue is invaded so there is no cellular response
What are cutaneous mycoses? Give some examples.
Produce keratinases – causes inflammation
Trychopyton and Microsporum are main examples
What are subcutaneous mycoses?
Chronic, localised infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following traumatic implantation of the aetiological agent.
What type of fungal infection is a big problem in transplant settings?
What are the three types of candida infection that can occur in the immunocompromised?
What are the three types of mucocutaneous candidiasis that occurs in people with HIV?
What are the main risk factors for systemic candida infections?
What are the three main targets for antifungal therapy?
How do antifungals that target the cell membrane work? Give some examples.
Fungal cell membranes contain ergosterol instead of cholesterol
Some antifungals inhibits ergosterol synthesis
Examples: azole (itraconazole)
Polyene antibiotics (Amphotericin B and Nystatin)
How do antifungals that target DNA synthesis work? Give an example.
Pyrimidine analogues are used to interfere with DNA synthesis
Example: Flucytosine (used for Cryptococcus)
How do antifungals that target the cell wall work? Give an example.
They inhibit the assembly of fungal cell wall components such as glucans and chitin
Example: Caspofungin (a type of Echinocandin)