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Rando Quizes Neuro > G's Get Degrees Random Cards Imported > Flashcards

Flashcards in G's Get Degrees Random Cards Imported Deck (91):
1

Crus Cerebri

Loss of motor function of eye- CN III, IV

2

Superior Colliculi

Motor, sensory and orientation to danger

3

Inferior colliculi

Hearing loss CN 8 damaged - lateral lemniscus

4

Posterior cerebral artery(branch of basilar artery)

Ipsilateral side - CN 3

5

Pons -

cardiovascular, breathing control, acoustic, vestibular orientation

6

Facial colliculus(Caudomedial pontine floor)

Facial muscle, eye muscle problems (CN 6 & 7)

7

Vestibular Schwannoma- tumor in cerebellopontine angle

CN 7 & 8 function

8

Basilar artery

Locked in syndrome

9

Pneumotaxic center

Maintenance of normal breathing pattern

10

Medulla

expiration, inspiration, vasomotor , swallowing,vomiting

11

Pyramids

Motor function - weakness

12

Rostral ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) - Pressor Area(Glutaminergic)

Loss of control of BP

13

Caudal Ventrolateral Medulla (CVLM)-Depressor Area(GABAergic)

Decrease in ADH release and inc in BP _ Dehydration

14

Ventromedial Medulla (raphe nuclei)

Dec regulation of temperature,pain, respiration. Lose sympathetic output and constriction of cutaneous blood vessels.

15

Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

Hypertension _ cardiac damage, pulmonary edema _ death

16

Nucleus Ambiguus

Loss of parasympathetic/visceral response to decrease BP

17

Dorsal Respiratory group(DRG)

Periodic activation during inspiration, feedback from lung

18

Ventral respiratory group(VRG)

Respiratory rhythm generation decreases

19

Pre-Botzinger complex in medulla

Respiratory rhythm generator

20

Phrenic Nucleus

Diaphragmatic contraction

21

Internal capsule (corticospinal tract) - projection tract

Opposite side motor function is weak

22

Cerebellum-

compares motor output with the sensory feedback. Coordinated and steady movement

23

Cerebellum - Flocculus(CN 8)

Uncoordinated, unsteady movement

24

Lateral cerebellum

Fine precise control of movements of fingers

25

Medial cerebellum (vermis)

Up and down movements - control of trunks and limbs

26

Tonsil herniation

Brain herniates through the foramen magnum

27

Vermis herniation

Prone to damage medulla

28

Hypothalamus -

integrates endocrine, behavioral info

29

Posterior Hypothalamus (normal function = Increases body temperature) _it_s hot in the back_

Decreased body temperature

30

Anterior Hypothalamus(normal function = decreases body temperature)

Increased body temperature

31

Ventromedial hypothalamus (normal function = inhibits feeding)

obesity

32

Lateral hypothalamus(normal function = increases feeding)

Decreased feeding (inhibitory neuronal link between arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamus _ suppresses food consumption _ weight loss)

33

Pterygoid canal

1.ÿÿÿÿ vasodilation (b/c sympathetics is lost (deep petrosal nerve)); ÿÿ no secretion from nasal, palatine, and lacrimal gland; loss of general sense and taste sensation of palate (damaged Greater petrosal- anterior 2/3 tongue gone)

34

Brain swelling

Uncus compresses CN III - dilated pupils, sleepiness

35

Lenticulo striate artery(branch of MCA)

Paralysis of upper body

36

Corticobulbar tract

Loss of motor function of CN

37

Suprasacral spinal transection(Above T12)

Automatic bladder- bladder is filled until a threshold is reached _ reflexing emptying

38

Midsacral afferents (cauda equina)

Atonic bladder _ loss of afferents - bladder is filled and leads to urinary retention due to loss of reflexive arc(micturition center) _ urine dribbling

39

Lateral brain- MCA dominant

Language deficit(understanding decreases-Wernicke_s and- Broca_s), weak mouth and face

40

Medial brain- ACA dominant in anteromedial

ACA- left Leg, foot weakness, loss of voluntary control of bowel and bladder (incontinence)

41

PCA is posteromedial

PCA - CN3 - Central vision is preserved but cannot see periphery, amnesia

42

Anterior spinal artery (ventral 2/3rd of spinal cord) - somatosensation

Cannot tell pain and temperature(ASA)

43

(Lateral column)

Paralysis(lateral column)

44

Posterior spinal artery

Dorsal column of the ipsilateral side

45

Herpes

Temporal lobe

46

Prolactinoma -pituitary gland tumor

Compresses optic chiasm - Decrease in endocrine cells,Optic nerve dysfunction

47

Fornix (connects hippocampus to mamillary body)

Amnesia, Korsakoff

48

Dorsal-column medial lemniscal system

Detect position, vibration

49

Spinothalamic tract

Pain and temperature

50

Corticospinal(cortical layer V)

Voluntary movement -strength decreases

51

Circumventricular organs - Subfornical organs, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis

Decreased secretion of ADH, decreased control of regulation of electrolytes

52

Amygdala

Decreased emotion and fear response

53

Solitary Nucleus

Decreased response to pain,temperature and special afferents(taste) from CN 7,9,10

54

Anterior Paracentral

Weakness in contralateral lower extremity

55

Mastoiditis

Petrous part of temporal bone

56

Inferior frontal gyrus(pars operacularis and triangularis)

Lose Broca_s speech area

57

Lateral funiculus

Weakness in arm and leg

58

Middle meningioma

Parieto-occipital sulcus

59

Achetylcholine

1) Basal forebrain: Basal nucleus of Meynert → cortex, limbic system -involved with Alzheimer's 2) Dorsolateral pontine tegmental → brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum : motor control of movement

60

Glutamate

Ubiquitous (everywhere). a) AMPA/Quisqualate kainate : ionotropic cationic : Na+ influx, K+ efflux b) NMDA : glutamate binds, glycine has to occupy the strychnine-insensitive binding sites - Non-NMDA receptor mediated depolarization - Mg2+ removed → Na+,Ca2+ influx and K+ efflux Aspartate uses same receptor

61

GABA

- Small GABAergic neurons are ubiquitous modulators- Longer GABAergic pathways arise from varied nuclei- Striatum → substantia nigra- Substantia nigra → superior colliculus and thalamus- Medial vestibular nuclei → spinal cord- Cerebellar cortex → deep cerebellar nuclei- GABAa - ionotropic - Cl- passing receptor> benzodiazepines works with GABA(a) to allow Cl > barbiturates can work independently- GABAb - metabotropic: inc K+ efflux and Ca2+ dec influx → axoaxonic → reduce NT release

62

Glycine

- Neurons are small local regulators- Found near spinal and bulbar motor nuclei- Structurally and functionally similar to GABAa receptors - Cl- conducting (ionotropic)- Blocked by strychnine

63

Dopamine

1. Substantia nigra pars compacta → via nigrostriatal pathway → caudate and putamen (motor function) -Parkinson's affects midbrain 2. Ventral tegmental area situated medial to substantia nigra- Prefrontal cortex (mesocortical pathway) - increase schizophrenia - Nucleus accumbens and limbic structures(mesolimbic pathway) - happy center3. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus → hypothalamic median eminence for dumping of DA into hypophyseal portal system → inhibits prolactinMetabotropic : D1 like (D1 & D5): excitatory coupled to cAMP1. D2 like (D2, D3, D4) - inhibitory coupling to cAMP

64

Norepinephrine

1. Locus coeruleus → diencephalon, limbic system, cerebral lobes and cerebellum( indicated in depression)2. Other clusters of pontomedullary noradrenergic nuclei project → NTS and spinal targetsMetabotropic : a1 and B1 excitatory1. a2 & b2 inhibitory

65

Serotonin (Nuclei- only one found in brainstem)

Array of midline brainstem(raphe)- Mesencephalic and pontine nuclei → thalamus , limbic areas, cortex (Depression - Medullary serotonergic cells → within the medulla and to spinal cordMetabotropic5-Ht1, 5-Ht5 : inhibitory5-Ht2: excitatory5-HT3: excitatory ionotropic (cation -permeable)- 5-HT4, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 : excitatory

66

Buccal Nerve vs. Buccal Branch of Facial Nerve

Buccal Nerve comes off V3; Buccal Branch comes off Facial N. ; Buccal Nerve is Sensory; Buccal Branch of Facial is Motor.

67

Three Muscles on Styloid Process:

Stylopharyngeus – innervated by Glossopharyngeal N.;Stylohyoid – innervated by Facial N. (remember stylohyoid is associated with Posterior Belly of Digastric M., which is also innervated by Facial N.);Styloglossus – innervated by Hypoglossal N.

68

Superior Laryngeal Nerve: Internal vs. ExternalBranches

Internal Branch = sensory;External Branch = Motor (innervates Cricothyroid)

69

Cricothyroid vs. The Rest of LarynxInnervations:

Cricothyroid = innervated by External Branch of Superior Laryngeal Nerve.;All other Laryngeal Muscles = innervated by Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

70

Posterior vs. Anterior Belly of Digastric

Posterior Belly = innervated by facial;Anterior Belly = innervated by V3 (Nerve to Mylohyoid, to be exact – remember Anterior Belly is associated with Mylohyoid)

71

Left vs. Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

Left = branches off Vagus, then loops around arch of aorta;Right = branches off Vagus, then loops around Right Subclavian Artery

72

Internal vs. External Jugular Veins:

Internal = runs deep to Sternocleidomastoid;External = runs superficial to Sternocleidomastoid

73

Internal Jugular V and Internal Carotid A. vs. External Jugular V and External Carotid A

Internal = goes straight up into brain;External = goes outside of brain.

74

Stapedius vs. Tensor Tympani:;

Facial N. → Stapedius → pulls on Stapes → dampens sounds (from voices);V3 → Tensor Tympani → pulls on malleus (which then pulls on tympanic membrane) → dampens sounds (from chewing).

75

Components of Carotid Sheath:;;

Internal Jugular Vein;Common Carotid Artery;Vagus Nerve runs between them.

76

Genioglossus vs. Geniohyoid vs. MylohyoidInnervations:;;

Genioglossus = innervated by Hypoglossal N. (XII);Geniohyoid = innervated by C1;Mylohyoid = innervated by V3 (Nerve to Mylohyoid)

77

Cranial Nerves that have Parasympathetic Innervation

CN 3, 7, 9, 10

78

What does the Superior Oblique muscle do?;

Its action is to make your eye look down and out;To test to see if the Superior Oblique works, look in and down (note: NOT down and in). Because the “out” action can also be done by lateral rectus, you can’t reliably test for Superior Oblique’s “out” function, and therefore you only test for the Superior Oblique’s “down” function. Because inferior rectus also does the “down” action, you tell the patient to look “in” first before looking “down” because inferior rectus doesn’t work well when the eye is adducted.

79

Innervation of the Tongue:;

Anterior 2/3 - general sensation lingual nerve from v3, taste from chorda tympani from facial and motor hypoglossal;post 1/3 - gen sense and taste glossopharnygeal and motor is hypoglossal

80

Larynx Muscles:;;;

Only Abductor — Posterior Cricoarytenoid.;Whispering Muscle (doesn’t adduct all the way) — Transverse Arytenoid M.;Lowers pitch — Thyroarytenoid M.;Raises pitch — Cricothyroid M.

81

Glossus Muscles Innverations

All “-glossus” muscles are innervated by hypoglossus except palatoglossus, which is innervated by vagus. All the pharynx muscles are vagus except stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by glossopharyngeus.

82

Branches of Facial Nerve;;;;;

Please = Posterior Auricular;Tell = Temporal Branch;Ziggy = Zygomatic Branch;Bob = Buccal Branch;Marley = Mandibular Branch;Called = Cervical Branch

83

Cutaneous Branches of V1 (Ophthalmic Nerve):;;;;

L = Lacrimal N.;I = Infratrochlear N.;E = Ethmoidal N.;S = Supratrochlear N.;S = Supraorbital N.

84

Cutaneous Branches of V2 (Maxillary Nerve):;;

Z = Zygomaticotemporal N.;I = Infraorbital N.;Z = Zygomaticofacial N.

85

Cutaneous Branches of V3 (Mandibular Nerve;;

B = Buccal N.;A = Auriculotemporal N.;M = Mental N.

86

Branches of External Carotid Artery, from inferior to superior

o Some = Superior Thyroid A.
o Angry = Ascending Pharyngeal A.
o Lady = Lingual A.
o Found = Facial A.
o Out = Occipital A.
o P = Posterior Auricular A.
o M = Maxillary A.
o S = Superficial Temporal A.

87

Drainage to Superior Meatus;

P= Posterior Ethmoidal Air Sacs;S = Sphenoidal Sinus

88

Drainage to Middle Meatus;;;

F = Frontal Sinus;A = Anterior Ethmoidal Air Sacs;M = Middle Ethmoidal Air Sacs;M = Maxillary Sinus

89

Drinage to Inferior Meatus

N = Nasolacrimal Duct

90

Kiesselbach’s Area (Little’s Area) Anastomoses;;;

F = Facial Artery (Superior Labial Branch);O = Ophthalmic Artery (Anterior Ethmoidal Branch);M = Maxillary Artery (Greater Palatine Branch);M = Maxillary Artery (Sphenopalatine Branch)

91

Symptoms of Horner’s Syndrome;;;

S = Sympathetic Chain impingement;P = Ptosis (drooping eyelid);A = Anhydrosis (dehydration);M = Miosis (pin-point eye)