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Flashcards in Gas Laws Deck (47):
1

What is meant by standard molar volume?

At STP (1 atm and 0C), 1 mole of ideal gas has a volume of 22.4L or 22.7L (dependning on the text)

2

What are the 4 quantities that describe the state of a gas?

- pressure
- temperature
- volume
- number of moles

3

What is Boyle’s law?

P1V1= P2V2
When temperature is constant—> volume and pressure are inversely related

4

What is Charle’s law?

V1/T1 = V2/T2
If pressure is constant—> gas expands (volume increases) when heated (directly proportionate)
* also called the law of volume

5

What is Avogadro’s number?

6.022 x 10^23

6

What does Avogadro say?

V1/N1 = V2/N2
At equal temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gas contain equal number of particles (molecules)

7

How to you calculate kelvin?

Celcius + 273.15

8

What is Gay-Lusac’s Law?

P1/T1 = P2/T2
If volume is constant—> pressure is directly proportional to temperature

9

What is the ideal gas law?

PV=nRT
*describes the behavior of an ideal gas under all conditions *
P= pressure
V= volume
n= number of moles
R= constant (0.08205)
T= temperature (K)

10

T/F: Unlike solids or liquids, gas density depends strongly on temperature and pressure?

True

11

What is Dalton’s law of partial pressures?

The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases.
Ptotal= P1 + P2 + P3.....

1 atm= 0.79atm + 0.21 atm

12

What are the partial pressures of inhaled anesthetic gases?

Sevo: 157 mmHg
Iso: 240 mmHg
Des: 669mmHg

13

What is mole fraction?

A way of expressing the relative proportion of 1 particular gas within a mixture of gases.

Xa= mol A/(mol A + mol B + mol C)

14

What does relative humidity measure?

The saturation of water in the air
RH= (mass of water in air)/(mass of water that will fit in air)

15

Warmer air will hold more water. What does this mean as the air cools?

As it cools humidity increases. As water concentration exceeds the solubility of water dew will form—> dew point

16

Maximum solubility of water in the air is directly related to ________________.

Vapor pressure of water

17

What is the relative humidity in a closed container?

100%

18

What happens to relative humidity as temperature goes down?

Relative humidity increases

19

What is the vapor pressure of water at body temp (37C)?

47mmHg

20

What is stated in the Kinetic Theory of Gases?

- gases consist of small particles, where volume is negligible compared to the volume of the gas
- gas molecules are in constant, random motion
- no attractive or repulsive forces exist between gas particle—> collisions are elastic
- average kinetic energy depends only on temperature (and is a distribution)

21

How do you find the density of a gas?

Sum of mass of molecules/ volume gas occupies

22

What is the equation for the pressure of a gas?

P=f/a
Pressure = Force/area

23

What does temperature of a gas really measure?

Mean kinetic energy of gas
- the higher the temperature, the greater the motion
- temperature is directly proportional to average kinetic energy

24

How do you find the internal energy?

kinetic energy + potential

25

Does average kinetic energy depend of the identity of the gas?

No, average kinetic energy depends on temperature

26

Define effusion and diffusion?

Effusion= movement of gas through a small opening
Diffusion= movement from high to low concentration

*effusion and diffusion are substantially the same process *

27

What is Graham’s Law of Effusion?

The rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular mass, and depends on speed of molecules

Rate A/ Rate B = the square root of (mmB/mmA)

Mm= molecular mass

* The premise is that heavier gas molecules will move more slowly

28

What is Fick’s law?

Rate = D x A x P1-P2/ (T x square root of molecular weight)

D= diffusion coefficient
A= surface area
P1-P2= difference of partial pressure of gas across membrane
T= thickness of membrane

Said another way, the rate of diffusion across a membrane is determined by:
- chemical nature of the membrane itself (diffusion coefficient)
- surface area of membrane
- partial pressure gradient of the gas across the membrane
- thickness of membrane

29

What is a real life application of Fick’s law?

Applies to gas in alveoli going into tissues

30

What are diffusion and perfusion-limited gas exchange distinguished by?

The extent that an alveolar gas’s partial pressure will equilibrium across the alveolar membrane as blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries

31

Since nitrous oxide has such a rapid diffusion rate, and consequently rapid partial pressure equillibration, what is the principle factor limiting transport of nitrous oxide away from the lungs?

The rate of blood flow through pulmonary capillaries—> “perfusion limitation”

32

What main points does Fick’s law explain?

- the concentration effect
- the 2nd gas effect
- diffusion hypoxia
- why nitrous leads to increase in volume and increase in pressure in gas spaces in the body

33

CO2 is larger than O2. Why does it diffuse faster across alveolar and capillary membranes?

CO2 is 20 times more soluble

34

How does a fetus receive O2 and drugs?

Simple diffusion across a membrane

35

Diffusion requires ________________.

A difference in partial pressures

36

What does Henry’s law state?

The amount of a non-reactive gas which dissolves in liquid is directly proportionate to the partial pressure of gas (if temperature remains constant)
- permits calculation of dissolved CO2 and O2 in blood

37

How much O2 is dissolved in blood, and how do you calculate it if you know the partial pressure?

Dissolved O2 in blood is 0.003mL/100mL blood/mmHg partial pressure of O2
—> multiple pp of O2 by 0.003

38

How does Henry’s law relate to temperature?

The amount of gas dissolved is inversely proportionate to temperature—> the colder the liquid,the more gas that will dissolve
- in the O.R. The colder your patient is—> gas will hang around longer

39

What is Ostwald’s solubility coefficient?
(Aka the blood:gas partition coefficient)

The ratio of concentration of a compound in 1 solvent to the concentration in another solvent at equilibrium
- describes how gas will partition itself between the 2 phases after equilibrium is reached

The higher the coefficient, the more readily the gas dissolves in the liquid

40

Enflurane has a blood:gas partition coefficient of 1.8. What does this mean?

1.8 times the concentration in the blood than in the alveoli

41

A higher partition coefficient means:

Higher lipophillicity= higher potency = higher solubility

42

What does higher solubility in blood mean?

More agent needs to be dissolved—> slower onset
MAC decreases as blood gas partition coefficient increases, usually

43

What is stated by Meyer-Overton?

Agents with increased oil solubility have greater potency, due to the cell’s lipid membrane
* later disproved—> experiments proved protein, ion changes or enzymes were the cause (inhibition of Luciferase enzyme)

44

What are the differences between ideal and real gasses?

Ideal: obey laws at all temperatures and pressures * there are no ideal gases *
Real: deviate at high pressure and/or temperatures
- van der waals equation deals with this deviation

45

What is understood under the van der waals relationship?

- Assumes gas molecules have finite volumes
- and gas molecules attract one another (van der waals forces)
* these forces must be broken for liquid molecules to enter gas phase *

46

What is the Joule-Thompson effect?

“Joules cools”
- as a cylinder of compressed gas empties, the cylinder cools
—> this is how a cryoprobe works

47

What is Adiabatic compression?

In a sealed container where heat can’t flow
- if you compress the gas—> work is done on the gas
- this increases energy—also increases HEAT
So, if you halve the volume, you double the pressure
- when you connect to pipeline, the temperature change could be hot enough to cause a fire