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Pressure

The force exerted on an object divided by the area over which it is exerted. Barometer measures pressure. Unit in millimeters of mercury.

1

1 standard atmospheres (atm) = (mm Hg & bar)

760mm Hg = 101.3 kPa & 1.01325 bar

2

SI unit of pressure is the _______

pascal (Pa)

3

1 pascal (Pa) =

1 newton/meter2

4

1 bar = (Pa & atm)

100,000 Pa 0.9872 atm

5

Boyle's law

Expresses that the product of the pressure and volume of a gas sample is a constant at a given temperature. P1V1 = P2V2 at constant n and T

6

Avogadro's Hypothesis

Equal volumes of gases under the same condition of temperature and pressure have equal number of particles. V ⇒n at constant T and P

7

The Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

8

Standard temperature and pressure (STP)

Gas temp of 0º or 273.15K Pressure of 1 atm

9

Standard molar volume

1 mol of an ideal gas occupies 22.414 L

10

Gas constant R

0.082057 L•atm/ K•mol

11

Density of Gas

d = m/V = P•M/R•T

12

Dalton’s law of partial pressures

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 . . .

13

General Gass Law

P1 V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

Temp in K (Cº +273)

 

14


Normal Boiling point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals 1 atm

15

Rate of effusion of Gas 1/

rate of effucion of gas 2 =

Sq Root ( molar mass gas 2/ molar mass gas 1)

16

Properties of Water that are contributed to hydrogen bonding

High melting point

high heat of vaporization

low vapor pressure

 high suface tention

17

Hydrogen bonding, X—H . . . :Y

Very polar X—H bond and atom Y with lone pair of electrons (where X and Y = F, N, O). Typical energy =
20 kJ/mol.