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Flashcards in GCSE Epic Civilization Terms Deck (121):
1

 आश्रम

 

A stage of life.  There are four main divisions: brahmacārin (ब्रह्मचारिन्), gṛhastha (गृहस्थ),  vānaprastha (वानप्रस्थ), sannyāsin (सन्न्यासिन्)

2

 श्रीमद् भागवतम्

 

The most famous Purāṇa, dealing especially with the life and exploits of Kṛṣṇa.

3

अक्रोध

 

Absence of anger

4

अग्नि

God of fire.

5

अग्नि or तेजस्

Fire, the third great element with its property form or beauty rūpa (रूप​​)

6

अन्तःकरण

Inner organ of mind

7

अप्सरस्

 

A beautiful heavenly nymph

8

अभयम्

 

Fearlessness

9

अर्थ

 

Wealth, prosperity

10

अवतार

 

Incarnation of Viṣṇu when dharma is transgressed

11

अविद्या

Ignorance. The belief that māyā is the true reality.

12

अव्यक्त​

Unmanifest nature.

13

अस्तेयम्

 

Abstention from theft

14

अहङ्कार​

The organ that identifies the ātman with something in creation.

15

अहिंसा

 

Harmlessness of thought, speech and action

16

आकाश

Space, or ether, the first great element with its property sound śabda (शब्द​)

17

आत्मन्

The Self. The one Self in all.

18

आरण्यक

 

'Forest discussions' of the veda's inner meaning.

19

इन्द्र

 

Lord of the minor gods. Universal mind, lord of the elements

20

इन्द्रियाणि

Senses

21

उपनिषद्

 

Philosophical discussions of the identity of the ātman with the brahman.

22

ऋषि

Sage

23

कर्मन्

The principle that actions create an effect in the future.

24

कर्मेन्द्रियाणि

Senses of action -- speaking, grasping etc.

25

कलियुग

 

The Iron Age: 432, 000 years

26

कल्प

 

14 manvantaras, a day of Brahmā

27

काम

 

Desire and sensual enjoyment

28

कृतयुग  / सत्ययुग

 

The Golden Age: 1, 728, 000 years

29

क्षत्रिय

 

The class of warriors, kings and statesmen

30

गन्धर्व

 

A celestial musician

31

गुणाः

The three consituents of the universe: sattva, rajas and tamas.

32

गृहस्थ

 

The householder stage

33

चित्त​

The part of the causal body called the heart where the deposits of actions are stored.

34

जल​

Water, the fourth great element with its property taste, rasa (रस​)

35

ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि

Senses of knowledge -- seeing, hearing etc

36

ज्ञान​

True knowledge. The knowledge that brahman is reality.

37

तपस्

 

Disciplined action that purifies and enhances energy

38

तमस्

The quality of dullness and inertia.

39

त्रेतायुग

 

The Silver Age: 1,296,000 years.

40

दम

 

Control of mind, speech, senses and body

41

दया

 

Compassion

42

दानम्

 

Generosity

43

देव

 

'Shining one.' A universal power or deity

44

देवी

 

A female deity or goddess.

45

द्वापरयुग

 

The Bronze Age: 864, 000 years

46

धर्म

 

Virtue.  'That which upholds,' the system of duties, rewards, punishments etc., which is the will of the Absolute. Universal justice which ensures happiness for all who follow the law of their own nature.

47

धातु

 

Seed of a word.

48

ध्यान

 

Meditation

49

नाग

 

Serpent being

50

पाणिनि

 

Author of the 4000 or so sūtras comprising the vyākaraṇa. In this science all words are shown to derive from a few simple dhātus and an even simpler system of pratyayas (endings.)

51

पाप​

Sin, the essence of bad deeds.

52

पार्वती

 

Consort of Śiva, the power of law

53

पितृ

 

Ancestors or forefathers

54

पुण्य​

Merit, the essence of a good deeds

55

पुराण

 

'The ancient teachings'. Eighteen works by Vyāsa that deal with creation and dissolution, kings, sages, incarnations, etc.

56

पुरुषार्थ

 

The aspiration and purpose of human life.  This has four aspects: kāma (काम), sensual enjoyment; artha (अर्थ), wealth; dharma (धर्म), virtue; and mokṣa (मोक्ष), liberation

57

पुरुष​

Spirit, whose reflection is prakṛti.

58

पृथिवी

Goddess of the Earth

59

पृथिवी or भूमि

Earth, the fifth great element with its property smell gandha (गन्ध​)

60

प्रकृति

Primal nature, where everything is stored in seed or causal form, which can be thought of as the reflection of the puruṣa.  Also known as avyakta.

61

प्रत्यय​

The endings of word.  A Sanskrit grammatical term.

62

प्रलय​

Dissolution. Presided over tamas.

63

प्राण​

Vital breath that divides into various functions: prāṇa, the breath in the mouth and the nose, apāna, the breath that excretes, vyāna, the breath that permeates the whole body, udāna, the breath that leaves the body at death, and samāna, the breath that digests.

64

बुद्धि

Reason, the organ of discrimination, reflecting the light of the ātman.

65

ब्रह्मचारिन्

 

The student stage of chastity, study and obedience

66

ब्रह्मन्

The ultimate reality underlying all phenomena.

67

ब्रह्मा

The god responsible for creating the creation.  Represents rajas.

68

ब्राह्मण

 

The class of priests and teachers

69

भगवद्गीता

 

The 'Song of the Lord,' found in the Mahābhārata, records the spiritual discourse between Krishna and the great warrior Arjuna.

70

मनस्

Mind, the lower level that thinks and deliberates

71

मनुस्मृति

 

Also called dharmaśāstra .  The Laws of Manu sets out the laws of human life according to the universal system of dharma.

72

मन्त्र​

A special magic word.

73

मन्वन्तर

 

71 Mahāyugas supervised by one Manu (Lawgiver)

74

महाभारत

 

The world's longest epic, by Vyāsa , telling the story of the battle between the  Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas and the events leading to it.

75

महाभूतानि

The five great subtle elements

76

महायुग

 

One cycle of the four yugas - 4, 320, 000 years

77

माया

Illusion. The magic that makes the universe seem to be here.

78

मोक्ष​

Liberation from bondage in saṃsāra (संसार​).  One of the four puruṣārthas.

79

यक्ष​

Guardian spirit

80

यज्ञ

 

Sacrifice.  This can be a complicated ritual or dedicated action.  Five sacrifices are enumerated in Manu: devayajña, (to the gods), ṛṣiyajña (to the sages), pitṛyajña (to the ancestors), manuṣyayajña (to human beings) and bhūtayajña (to the lower creatures).

81

यम

 

Death, controller and ender of all.

82

युग​

An age

83

योगसूत्राणि

A text outlining the principles of yoga.  Attributed to Patañjali.

84

रजस्

The quality of activity and passion

85

राक्षस

 

Night wandering ogre or demon

86

रामायण

 

The story of Rāma and his battles with the demons, by the sage  Vālmīki.

87

लक्ष्मी

Consort of Viṣṇu, the power of increase and property

88

वर्ण

 

Class or caste of men.  There are four main divisions: brāhmaṇa (ब्राह्मण), kṣatriya (क्षत्रिय), vaiśya (वैश्य), and śūdra (शूद्र)

89

वानप्रस्थ

 

The forest-dweller stage

90

वायु

Air, the second great element with its property touch sparśa (स्पर्श​)

91

वायु

God of wind

92

विकल्प​

Doubt, conflicting idea

93

विष्णु

The god responsible for maintaining the creation.  Maintains order by incarnating himself with avatāras.  Represents sattva.

94

वेदाङ्ग   

 

'The support of the veda.'  Six sciences which preserve the proper understanding and recitation of the veda.  Their subjects are śikṣā (pronunciation), chandas (metre), vyākaraṇa (grammar), nirukta (meaning of words), jyotiṣa (astronomy), and kalpa (ritual).

95

वेदान्त

 

The teaching of the Upaniṣads (literally the 'final part' or 'goal' of the veda.)

96

वेद​

Thought to be the oldest Sanskrit literature, the veda is a collection of hymns compiled into four sections.  These are: Ṛk, Sāman, Yajus, and Atharva. Traditionally, the veda is considered to be the eternal, non-human knowledge that shapes the creation.

97

वैश्य

 

The class of merchants, producers and farmers

98

व्यष्टि

The individual acting as a single unit

99

व्याकरण

 

Science of grammar.  One of the vedāṅgas.

100

व्यास

 

Vyāsa means 'compiler.'  Traditionally, he is considered to be the sage who compiled the veda into four sections and who also composed the Mahābhārata, Purāṇas and the Brahmasūtra.

101

शक्ति

 

The power or force of a deva, considered as his consort.

102

शान्ति

 

peace

103

शास्त्र

Scripture, methodology, teaching.

104

शिव​

The god responsible for destroying creation.  Represents tamas.

105

शूद्र

 

The class of servants and labourers

106

शौचम्

 

Cleanliness

107

श्रुति

 

'What has been heard,' i.e. Vedic literature.  This is considered to be of the highest authority.

108

संकल्प​

Mental construction, resolve, belief

109

संसार​

Transmigration.  The process of continual rebirth.

110

संस्कार​

Traces or deposits from past actions that create conditions for rebirth.

111

सत्त्व

The quality of purity, intelligence, brightness.

112

सत्यम्

 

Unfailing truthfulness in speech

113

सन्न्यासिन्

 

The stage of complete renunciation as a wandering mendicant.

114

समष्टि

The universe as a single person or whole

115

सरस्वती

 

Consort of Brahmā, the power of wisdom

116

सूत्र​

 

A very terse statement which is part of a complete system explaining a science.

117

सूर्य​

God of the sun

118

सृष्टि

Creation. Presided over by rajas.

119

स्थिति

Sustenance. Presided over by sattva.

120

स्मृति

 

'What has been remembered.' The teachings of the great sages. Second in authority to the śruti (श्रुति).

121

स्वाध्याय

 

Regular study of the scriptures