GE 100 Exam Three (Chapters 20-22) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GE 100 Exam Three (Chapters 20-22) Deck (93)
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1

coal benefaction

a process in which coal is cleaned by being crushed, screened, and suspended in a liquid, where the solid impurities settle out

2

continuous mining techniques

recovery in which mining machines allow the roof to cave in after the machine has removed all of the coal and "backs away" from the seam

3

conventional fossil fuels

coal, oil, and natural gas that supply nearly all of the energy provided by fossil fuels due to their low cost

4

crude oil

a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities; occurs in many varieties, distinguished by specific gravity, density concentrations of other hydrocarbons, volatility, heating value, and sulfur content. May contain significant amounts of natural gas; motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and petrochemicals derived from this

5

discoveries

a broad term that includes locations of new finds of resources

6

extraction efficiency

the fraction of the resource removed from its location in the environment

7

kerogen

an insoluble organic material that is the main precursor of crude oil and natural gas

8

mountaintop removal

a coal recovery practice in which vegetation and soil are removed from a mountaintop, explosives are used to separate coal from the rocks, and the rocks are subsequently dumped into a nearby valley

9

oil refinery

an industrial installation that breaks and separates the long-chain carbon molecules of crude oil into groups of shorter-chain molecules known as refined petroleum products

10

oil shale

an unconventional fossil fuel in which kerogen is trapped in sedimentary rock

11

operable capacity

the maximum rate of oil production that can be sustained during the following six months

12

overburden

soil and rock above a coal seam or other mineral source

13

porosity

a measurement of space between soil particles that can hold water or oil

14

primary recovery

oil that is pushed to the surface by the pressure gradient in the field

15

proved reserves

volumes of crude oil that geological and engineering information shows, beyond reasonable doubt, to be recoverable in the future from a reservoir under existing economic and operating conditions

16

Q infinity

the total quantity of oil that will be discovered and produced

17

refined petroleum products

carbon molecules derived from crude oil

18

reserves to production (R:P)

the quantity of oil in proved reserves relative to the current rate of oil production

19

revisions

changes (either positive or negative) to proved reserves that are generated by new information other than an increase in acreage

20

room and pillar

a coal extraction technique that leaves pillars of coal to prevent the ceiling from collapsing

21

seam

a naturally occurring layer of coal usually thick enough to be mined for profit

22

secondary recovery

the injection of water into an oil field to push additional quantities of oil toward the producing well and up to the surface

23

sedimentation

the burial of organic material by particles

24

surface mining techniques

coal recovery techniques that remove the soil and rock above coal seams, thereby exposing the seams

25

tertiary methods

injection of heat or materials that reduce the viscosity or surface tension of crude oil, which makes it flow more easily toward the surface

26

unconventional fossil fuels

fossil fuels, such as oil shales and tar sands, that may eventually replace conventional fossil fuels

27

underground mining techniques

coal recovery techniques in which shafts are drilled to the seam to give miners access

28

wildcatting

drilling wells into formations not previously known to contain oil or natural gas

29

yield per effort

the ratio of resource obtained relative to the effort used to obtain it

30

breeder reactor

a nuclear reactor that manufactures more fissionable isotopes than it consumes