GE 100 Exam Two (Chapters 12-18) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GE 100 Exam Two (Chapters 12-18) Deck (257)
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1

aerosols

tiny solid particles or liquid droplets that remain suspended in the atmosphere for a long time

2

alien species

species that do not naturally occur within an area that have usually arrived in the area as a result of human intervention (whether deliberate or accidental)

3

allopatric speciation

evolution of a new species that occurs when a population becomes geographically isolated from its parent population and accumulates genetic or behavioral changes that differentiate it from the original population

4

anthropocentric

the ethical position that the value of nonhuman species is determined by their value to people

5

attribution

the process of establishing a cause and effect relationship between human activity and an observed change in climate

6

background extinction

the ongoing extinction of individual species due to environmental or ecological factors such as climate change, disease, loss of habitat, or competitive disadvantage in relation to other species; occurs at a fairly steady rate over geological time and is the result of normal evolutionary processes, with only a limited number of species in an ecosystem being affected at any one time

7

biocentric

the ethical position that nonhuman species have value in and of themselves and have the right to exist independent of their usefulness to humans

8

biodiversity

the biological variation found in a defined spatial area: can refer to variation at the level of genome, phenotype, species, community, or ecosystem

9

biodiversity hot spot

an area with an especially large number of species

10

black market

a market in which goods or services are sold illegally

11

corruption

unlawful use of public office for private gain

12

diffuse chemical coevolution

natural selection favoring individuals that accumulate compounds effective against a wide variety of enemies

13

dispersal

the distance a species can travel to find new environments

14

ecosystem diversity

variation between and within ecosystems with regard to species and function

15

edge effects

habitat conditions created at or near the more or less well-defined boundary between ecosystems

16

edges

boundaries between well-defined ecosystems

17

endangered species

a species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range

18

endemic

species that are restricted to a certain geographic region and are thought to have originated there

19

enemy release hypothesis

the notion that the population of an alien species can grow rapidly (escape) if the number of pathogens it leaves behind in its native range exceeds the new pathogens it accumulates in its naturalized range

20

ethnobotany

the study of how different groups of people, including indigenous cultures, use plants and animals

21

ex situ

maintaining a species away from its natural habitat

22

extinction

the loss of living representatives of a given species either globally or locally

23

extremophiles

organisms that live in extreme environments

24

fragmentation

breakup of a continuous habitat, ecosystem, or land use type into smaller areas

25

gap species

species whose range falls outside protected areas

26

genetic diversity

information in the DNA of plants, animals, and microorganisms

27

governance

act of governing and exercising authority

28

habitat conversion

changes in the quality of land use or land cover associated with human activity

29

immigration

movement of a species into an area previously uninhabited by that species

30

in situ

efforts to preserve species in functioning ecosystems