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Flashcards in Gen pharma Deck (34)
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1

Bethanechol
[Action, clinical use]

Direct cholinomimetic agonist.
Activates bowel and bladder smooth muscle.
Resistant to AChE.
For Postoperative ileus, neurogenic ileus, urinary retention.

2

Carbachol
[Action, clinical use]

Direct cholinomimetic agonist.
Constricts pupil, relieves IOP in glaucoma.

3

Pilocarpine
[Action, clinical use]

Direct cholinomimetic agonist; Resistant to AChE.
Contracts ciliary muscle of eye (open angle glaucoma), pupillary sphincter (closed angle glaucoma).
Potent stimulator of sweat, tears, saliva (ex. Sjogren dse); glaucoma.

4

Methacholine
[Action, clinical use]

Direct cholinomimetic agonist.
Stimulates M receptors in airway.
*Challenge test for Asthma dx (bronchial hyperreactivity)

5

Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine
[Action, clinical use]

AChE inhibitor; inc. ACh.
Alzheimer dse

6

Edrophonium
[Action, clinical use]

AChE inhibitor; inc. ACh (very short-acting).
Used to dx for myasthenia graves. MG now diagnosed by anti-AChR antibody test

7

Neostigmine
[Action, clinical use]

AChE inhibitor; inc. Ach (long-acting)
Ileus (postop, neurogenic), urinary retention.
Myasthenia gravis.
Reversal of NMJ blockade (ex. postop, curare, flaccid paralysis).

8

Physostigmine
[Action, clinical use]

AChE inhibitor; inc. ACh.
Atropine overdose (Muscarinic antagonist).
Anticholinergic toxicity; crosses BBB (CNS effect).

9

Pyridostigmine
[Action, clinical use]

AChE inhibitor; inc. ACh.
Inc. muscle strength.
Myasthenia graves (long acting).

10

Atropine, Tropicamide
[Which organ, clinical use]

Muscarinic antagonist
Eye
Produce mydriasis, cycloplegia

11

Benztropine
[Which organ, clinical use]

Muscarinic antagonist, Anticholinergic.
CNS -- M1 receptor (blocks ACh effect on basal ganglia).
Parkinson dse (tremor), acute dystonia.

12

Ipratropium
[Which organ, clinical use]

Muscarinic antagonist.
Respiratory; dec. respi secretion.
For COPD, asthma.

13

Scopolamine
[Which organ, clinical use]

Muscarinic antagonist
CNS (sedation)
For Motion sickness

14

Albuterol, Salmeterol
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
B2 > B1.
>Albuterol: acute asthma.
>Salmeterol: longterm asthma, COPD.

15

Dobutamine
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
B1 > B2, alpha.
HF (inotropic).
Cardiac stress test (inc. CO).

16

Dopamine
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
D1 = D2 (B > alpha at higher doses).
Unstable bradycardia, HF, shock.
*Inotropic and chronotropic effects with alpha receptor

17

Epinephrine
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
B > alpha (higher doses)
Anaphylaxis, asthma, open-angle glaucoma.
>Low dose: B1, B2.
>Med dose: alpha1, B2 (antagonizes dobutamine).
>High dose: alpha1, B1, (B2) -- stronger effect at B2 vs NE

18

Isoproterenol
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
B1 = B2.
Electrophysiologic eval of tachyarrhythmias.
Can worsen ischemia (inc. HR, contractility, O2 demand).

19

Norepinephrine
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
alpha1 > alpha2 > B1.
Hypotension (but dec. renal perfusion).
>alpha1: inc. TPR, inc. BP.
>B1: inc. HR, inc. SV, inc. CO, inc. PP.

20

Phenylephrine
[Receptor, clinical use]

Sympathomimetic
alpha1 > alpha2
Rhinitis (decongestant)
Hypotension (vasoconstrictor)
Ocular procedures (mydriatic)

21

Amphetamine
[Action, clinical use]

Indirect sympathomimetic agonist; reuptake inhibitor; releases stored catecholamines.
Narcolepsy, obesity, ADHD

22

Cocaine
[Action, clinical use]

Indirect sympathomimetic agonist; reuptake inhibitor.
Causes vasoconstriction and local anesthesia.
*Don't give w/ B-blockers (unopposed alpha1 activation, extreme hypertension)

23

Phenoxybenzamine
[Clinical use, SE]

Irreversible alpha-blocker.
Pheochromocytoma (pre-op) -- prevent catecholamine (hypertensive) crisis.
SE: orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia.

24

Phentolamine.
Why should this be given to patients on MAO inhibitor?

Reversible alpha-blocker.
Give to pts on MAO inhibitors who eat tyramine-containing food (tyramine regulates BP).
SE: orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia.
*Tyramine foods: chocolate, alcoholic beverages, fermented foods (cheese)

25

Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin, Tamsulosin
(-osin)
[use]

alpha1-selective blockers.
Relaxes urinary sphincters -- urinary sx of BPH, PTSD (prazosin), HTN (except tamsulosin).

26

Mirtazapine
[use, SE]

alpha2-selective blocker.
Depression.
SE: inc. serum chole, inc. appetite

27

What are the 3 C's of any muscarinic antagonist that crosses the BBB?

Cardiotoxicity (Torsades de Pointes)
Convulsions
Coma

28

Atropine effects

Muscarinic antagonist; Blocks DUMBBEELSS.
Mydriasis, cycloplegia; Dec. airway secretions; Dec. gastric acid secretion, Dec. peristalsis; Dec. urinary urgency.

29

Clonidine
[use]

alpha2-agonist (sympatholytic) -- dec. sympa flow from presynaptic receptors in CNS.
HTN urgency (doesn't dec. renal blood flow).
ADHD, Tourette syndrome

30

alpha-methyldopa
[use, toxicity]

alpha2-agonist (sympatholytic).
HTN in pregnancy.
Toxicity: (+) Direct Coombs hemolysis, SLE-like syndrome.